Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) often known as CD289 (cluster of differentiation 289), is a member of the Toll-like receptor family that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern. TLR9 was first cloned and identified as a receptor for unmethylated CpG-DNA as well as for bacterial DNA. It is essential not only for pro-inflammatory cytokine production and other inflammatory responses, but it also plays a role in the induction of T helper 1 (Th1) acquired immune response and in the proliferation of B cells. Like all other members of the TLR family, TLR9 is composed of an extracellular domain containing multiple leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail containing the conserved TIR domain. The TLR9 sequence encodes a 1032 aa protein containing 27 N-terminal LRRs with a calculated molecular weight of 116 kDa . The gene for TLR9 has been mapped to human chromosome 3p21.3. TLR9 is most closely related to TLR7 and TLR8 with 36% and 35% overall amino acid sequence identity, respectively and thus along with TLR7 and TLR8 constitutes a new sub-family of the TLRs.

14 thoughts on “What Is Systemic Lupus

  1. mela

    How much should people with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus pay for the insurance in USA?
    im not an american n im with Systemic Lupus Erythematosuscan. can i buy insurance there?? if i can, how much should i pay for irt?? after i having insurance, how much should i pay when i go see the doctor and get the medicine??

    1. evrose

      Answers to your three questions in the order you asked them:

      1. Yes, you can.

      2. More than $1/year, but less than $10,000/year.

      3. Depends on your specific insurance plan.

      Hope that helps! lol.

  2. Anonymous

    Do you still recieve Medical Benefits if you recieve a hardship discharge from the Army?
    I have severe systemic lupus erythematosus and it has put a huge hardship on my family. I have been getting treated for it but its getting really bad, so bad I have to be on Chemotherapy. We heard that my husband could possibly get discharged out of the army on a hardship discharge. Our only concern is that my treatment costs a lot and we’re not sure if we will still receive the medical coverage if he is discharged. Can anyone help???

  3. Virginia

    Is throbbing foot pain a symptom of kidney failure in systemic lupus?
    Are throbbing, painful feet a symptom of kidney failure in systemic lupus?

    1. Linda R

      Kidney disease in lupus has not noticeable symptoms until it has gotten quite serious.

      If you have advanced lupus kidney disease you may have swelling in both feet and lower legs. It is not necessarily painful.

      If you have any doubt at all, call your rheumatologist. Protein and cellular casts in the urine are indicators of lupus kidney disease. It is always best to be proactive in order to prevent premanent damage or loss of kidney function altogether.

      Mention the pain to your rheumatologist. You could have neuropathy.

  4. Keith M

    What does the medical term erythematosus mean?
    Trying to find a definition of the medical word/term “erythematosus” by itself, not combined with other words. This word is normal used in combination with other medical words/terms describing a disease. Its is most often used and found in my internet searches with the medical term “systemic lupus erythematosus”. Since latin is used a lot in medicine, my guess is it is of latin origin.

    1. Michael O

      Erythmatous means “erythema characteristic” or “red inflammation”. The word part erythr- means “red”. Lupus interestingly enough means “wolf” and alludes to the skin looking as if a wolf had gnawed on it.

  5. swing life away

    What cell membrane protein (receptor, channel, and marker) malfunctions in each of these diseases?
    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    Cystic Fibrosis
    Adult Onset Diabetes
    Multiple Sclerosis

    thank you so much! if you could tell me where you found the info, it would be greatly appreciated. i have been looking forever and have not been successful.

    1. Yung Kosco

      I see you tryna do mr.smith project…lol….but i have no clue either…i was just about to do the same thing lol….i can tell u that systemic lupus erythematosus is caused from the receptor malfunctioning…hope this helps!!!

  6. DemiVsGod

    can someone help me understand systemic lupus?
    One of my friends was diagnosed with systemic lupus. her skin is one huge rash and her hair is falling out.

    what is lupus and what is the general outcome?

  7. Josh

    Is it against the rules to cork an aluminum bat in Little League?
    My son plays Little League Baseball but is unable to hit as far as many of his teammates, mainly because of his Systemic Lupus. I want to cork his bat and have the means to do so, including an industrial strength plasma welder. But is this against the rules of Little League Baseball? Any insights and comments are appreciated. Thanks!

    1. david w

      You will create an altered bat which upon discovery will mean your son is called out when he enters the batter’s box. Cork would actually hinder an aluminum bat by adding weight to it. It works with wood as it lightens the weight of the barrel.

      To be brief, bad idea.

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