Lupus Pathogenesis

If you are looking for hemorrhoid pain relief, then look no further. This article will explore the common causes and some great tips for getting easy and fast relief. Hemorrhoids are also called piles and are swollen veins near the anus. They can be classified as external or internal. The internal are located in the passage way of the anus. When they protrude to the outside they will appear like tiny grapes. What follows are some unique ways of getting hemorrhoid pain relief.

When hemorrhoids are external they are near the entrance of the anus and look like a lump of blood clot. Both varieties of hemorrhoids share the same symptoms of itching and pain around the anus, bloody stools and pain with bowel movements.

Having hemorrhoids may cause you to worry because it may seem like an impossible thing to treat. Just before we discuss some easy ways to get hemorrhoid pain relief, we want to make sure you know the truth about what causes hemorrhoids.

Genetics do play a role in having hemorrhoids. You may have a genetic predisposition to getting hemorrhoids, just like you inherited your hair and eye color. They are also the common result of excessively straining with constipation and defecation. You must increase your fiber intake, keep well hydrated and regularly exercise to also keep your bowel movements regular. The use of laxative will not help with hemorrhoid pain relief and may even cause more irritation.

For easy hemorrhoid pain relief, one of the simplest things to do is to apply some petroleum jelly to your anus. This will do wonders to ease the itching and inflammation in the area and will also allow stools to pass more easily. This will make the biggest aggravator of hemorrhoids-hard stools, much less painful. For a more natural option aloe vera can be applied to the area.

Aloe vera is good at hemorrhoid pain relief due to its soothing nature. It is also very helpful at healing so it can be handy for the hemorrhoids. It is also vital to make some changes to your diet to help with softening your stools.

A change in diet can be a great hemorrhoid relief treatment. You should start by having more fresh fruit and vegetables as these will soften your stools. Also decrease the amount of diary and flour as these promote hardness in stools. Adding fiber high foods like flax, oatmeal and bran are good also.

Natural hemorrhoid pain relief can also be found with witch hazel. This can be applied directly to the wound and will speed healing. It will ease the itching also. It is important to ensure your hemorrhoids stay dry and not damp to speed healing. Using toilet paper can result in irritation for some people, so you may find it easier for hemorrhoid pain relief to simply wash with water.

The above article will provide you with a good understanding of the reasons behind your hemorrhoids and some easy remedies for hemorrhoid pain relief. Starting with your diet and in conjunction with some of the other tips, you should be feeling better in no time.


Symptoms Of Lupus Disease On Men

WHAT IS PEYRONIE’S DISEASE?

Peyronie’s disease consists of hard, fibrous tissue, called plaques, developing within the penile shaft. The plaques are hard, thickened and stiff areas, actually a kind of internal scarring. In this fibroid tissue also calcium compounds can accumulate, making the plaques even harder.

The Peyronie’s disease is also called cavernositis, and also sometimes plastic induration. There is probably a chronic inflammation process that leads to this scarring.

The thickened area has less blood flow than normal penile tissue, and do not fill with blood and swell as the normal spongy areas in the inside of the penis. Therefore the penis swells more at the opposite side, and gets a curvature towards the side containing the plaques when erected.

If the plaques are found at several places, more complex deformations will develop. The abnormal bending, twisting or swelling within the penis, often also lead to painful erections.

Any man from the age of 18 and upwards can develop Peyronie’s disease. The average age of men suffering from Peyronie’s disease is 50.

 

THE SYMPTOMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONDITION

The three main characteristics of cavernositis are:

– One or more small hard lumps underneath the skin, or a continuous hard, stiff and thickened area.

– Abnormal bent or crooked penis when erect. All penises have some curvature, but by this disease, the penile bend increases, and one may get a very curved penis. The penis may be bent as a banana or in an angular fashion. The penile bending is most often up, but may be down, to the left side, to right or sloping.

-The bending is usually to the same side as that of the hard thickened area when the penis is erected.

-The hard areas in the erected penis may look like bumps, making the penis irregular.

– Sometimes the penis bends greatly enough to make sexual intercourse difficult, or impossible.

– Pain during erections caused by the pressure from the hard areas in the penis, or from the stretched skin at the opposite side of the penis.

– One may not notice the bend immediately, as it tends to develop over one to three months and later than the hardness and stiffness of the indurations.

– The plastic induration may progress and cause impotence. Sometimes the Peyroni’s disease will clear up by itself, but this may take several years.

 

THE CAUSES OF PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

The exact cause of the induration is unknown. It’s not a sign of an underlying serious condition, and it is not a sexually transmitted infection. It is possible that the disease can begin with an inflammation in the penile tissue. An inflammation may be caused by an allergic or auto-immune reaction. Although the Peyronie

What Is Lupus Cancer Symptoms

The formation of the sacroiliac joints (SI joints) is the result of the sacrum (tailbone) connecting to the left and right parts of the iliac (pelvis) bones. These joints are stabilized by strong ligaments and are not joints that have much range of motion. This is because their main role is in supporting the weight of the upper body when erect and sitting. Because of the high demand of the joint it is common to have some problems that result in SI joint pain.

Commonly when things go wrong with this joint it is called sacroiliac joint dysfunction and usually means there is SI joint pain. It is also called SI joint syndrome, SI joint inflammation and SI joint strain. These are all variations on a theme of problem of this joint.

There are many causes of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It is a joint like any other joint in the body and therefore prone to wear and tear. Osteoarthritis commonly happens in this joint because it is weight bearing in nature. As a result the cartilage on the bone surfaces, which acts like a shock absorber will wear away and the bone will rub on the bone causing pain.

Another common cause of SI joint pain is pregnancy. During the stages of pregnancy the body releases special hormones in preparation for childbirth that help relax the ligaments. The resultant relaxing of the SI joint structure and increased pregnant bodyweight can cause problems. Add on top of this the changed walking and standing posture of pregnancy and you have a recipe for SI joint pain.

Also any change or problem in the lower half of the body that disrupts the walking or gait cycle could cause SI joint problems. A leg length discrepancy, where one leg is longer than the other can do this. Also any injury to the lower back, foot, hip, knee or ankle can all result in a abnormal pattern of walking that places undue stress on the SI joints and causes SI joint pain.

Females seem prone to SI joint pain. This could be due to slight anatomical differences in the hips and pelvis. Two aggravating factors are known. Often when females sleep on their sides, the wider hip width means the top thigh drops down a lot. This put extra strain on the SI joint by opening it up. One solution is to sleep with a pillow between your legs and this should help the SI joint pain. Also sitting cross legged does a similar thing. It opens the joint and places uneven stress on it often for prolonged periods. The result is commonly SI joint pain. The solution is simple but may take some getting used to: stop sitting crossed legged.

Physical therapy for SI joint pain can be great. Yoga and pilates offer excellent benefits. Improving flexibility in stiff and tight areas can help reduce any compensation of the SI joints. Also building core stability can go a long way to helping take any excess stress off the SI joints. Remember the benefits and changes in the body may not be felt immediately with these activities, so it may require a slight commitment before you reap the rewards.


Symptoms Of Lupus Erythematosus Systemic

Causes of Bursitis
Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae (small sacs) of synovial fluid in the body. The bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth, almost frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless. When bursitis occurs, however, movement relying upon the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem.

The number varies, but most people have about 160 bursae throughout the body. Bursae are lined with special cells called synovial cells, which secrete a fluid rich in collagen and proteins. This synovial fluid acts as a lubricant when parts of the body move. When this fluid becomes infected by bacteria or irritated because of too much movement, the painful condition known as bursitis results.

What causes bursitis?
Bursitis usually results from a repetitive movement or due to prolonged and excessive pressure. Patients who rest on their elbows for long periods or those who bend their elbows frequently and repetitively (for example, a custodian using a vacuum for hours at a time) can develop elbow bursitis, also called olecranon bursitis. Similarly in other parts of the body, repetitive use or frequent pressure can irritate a bursa and cause inflammation.

Predisposing factors include diabetes, alcoholism, steroid therapy, uremia, trauma, and skin disease. A history of noninfectious inflammation of the bursa also increases the risk of septic bursitis.

Shoulder. Bursitis of the shoulder often results from injury to the rotator cuff, the muscles and tendons that connect your upper arm bone to your shoulder blade. Causes of the injury may include falling, lifting and repetitive overhead arm activities. Sometimes it’s hard to distinguish between the pain caused by bursitis and that caused by a rotator cuff injury.

Signs and symptoms
An area that feels swollen or warm to the touch
Occasional skin redness in the area of the inflamed bursa
Pain and tenderness are common symptoms. If the affected joint is close to the skin, as with the shoulder, knee, elbow, or Achilles tendon, swelling and redness are seen and the area may feel warm to the touch. The bursae around the hip joint are deeper, and swelling is not obvious.

How Is Bursitis Treated?
Your doctor can also prescribe medications to reduce the inflammation. Corticosteroids, also known as “steroids,” are often used because they work quickly to decrease the inflammation and pain. Steroids are also one of the safest treatment methods and can be injected directly at the site of injury. Unfortunately, 30% of people may not get complete relief from one injection and 2% of people may even get worse.

Sometimes, your doctor may recommend physical therapy or exercises to strengthen the muscles in the area. Additionally, your doctor may inject a corticosteroid drug into the bursa to relieve inflammation. This treatment generally brings immediate relief and, in many cases, one injection is all you’ll need.Anti-inflammatory medications, such as aspirin or over-the-counter nonsteroidal drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, naproxen, or indomethacin can often be helpful. If the cause of the bursitis is bacterial, antibiotics will be administered.


Lupus Pathogenesis Review

Dry eye syndrome, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is an eye disease in which the amount, or quality, of tear production is decreased, or the evaporation of tear film is increased. The translation of  “keratoconjunctivitis sicca” from Latin is “dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva”.

Symptoms

The most frequent clinical findings of dry eye can be meibomitis, telangiectasis, blepharitis, superficial punctate keratopathy, and hyperemia. Commonly, we describe typical symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis as dryness, burning[3] and a sandy or gritty eye irritation that becomes worse as the day progresses.[1] Symptoms may also be described as itchy,[3] scratchy,[4] stingy[3] or tired[3] eyes. Other symptoms are pain,[5] redness,[5] a pulling sensation,[3] and pressure behind the eye[3]. Many patients report a feeling that something,[3] such as a speck of dirt,[5] is in the eye. The resultant damage to the eye’s corneal surface increases discomfort and sensitivity to bright light.[3] Both eyes usually are affected.[6] There may also be a stringy discharge from the eyes.[5] Although it may seem counterintuitive, dry eye can induce the eyes to water.[5] This watering occurs because the eyes are irritated.[5] One may experience excessive tearing in the same way as one would if something became lodged in the eye.[5] These watery reflex tears will not reduce the dry eye symptoms[5] because this type of tear is the watery type that are produced in response to injury, irritation, or emotion.[5] They do not have the lubricating and wound healing qualities necessary to prevent and heal dry eye.[5]

In those suffering from dry eye, blinking can have a negative impact as well as a positive. On the one hand, blinking causes the eyelid to induce shear forces on the cornea as the lid moves across the corneal surface. This force can be high and lead to abrasion of the corneal surface if the normal, protective tear film is not in place to absorb the shear forces. On the other hand, because in the normal eye blinking coats the corneal surface with tears,[5] symptoms can be worsened by activities in which the rate of blinking is reduced due to prolonged use of the eyes[3]. These activities include prolonged reading,[1] computer usage,[1][3][5] driving,[3] or watching television[3][5]. The severity of symptoms increase in windy,[5] dusty[3][5] or smoky (including cigarette smoke[5]) areas,[1][3] in dry environments[1][3], high altitudes including airplanes,[6] on days with low humidity,[3] and in areas where an air conditioner[5] (especially in a car[3]), fan,[3] heater,[3] or even a hair dryer[5] is being used. The severity of symptoms are reduced during cool, rainy, or foggy weather and in humid places, such as in the shower.[3]

Many people experiencing dry eyes exhibit mild irritation with no long-term effects.[5] However, if the condition progresses, complications may result that cause eye damage,[5] resulting in impaired vision or infrequently in the loss of vision[3,5].

Symptom assessment is a key component of dry eye diagnosis, and objective measurements often are unable to fully describe the disease. Several questionnaires have been developed to determine a score that would allow for dry eye diagnosis. The McMonnies & Ho dry eye questionnaire is frequently used in clinical studies of dry eyes. A version of  the questionnaire can be accessed at: http://www.dipolarhosting.net/agingeye/dryeye.asp.

Epidemiology and Etiology

Over time the condition of dry eye can lead to tiny abrasions on the surface of the eyes.[4] In advanced cases of dry eye, the epithelium undergoes pathologic changes, such as squamous metaplasia and loss of goblet cells.[1] Severe cases can also result in thickening of the corneal surface,[3] corneal erosion,[1] punctate keratopathy,[1] epithelial defects,[1] corneal ulceration (sterile and infected),[1] corneal neovascularization,[1] corneal scarring,[1][3] corneal thinning,[1] and even corneal perforation[1].

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is relatively common within the United States, especially so in older patients.[1] Specifically, the persons most likely to be affected by dry eyes are those aged 40 or older.[6]

While persons with autoimmune diseases have a high likelihood of having dry eyes, most persons with dry eyes do not have an autoimmune disease.[6] Instances of SjA¶gren syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with it are present much more commonly in women, with a ratio of 9:1.[1] In addition, milder forms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca also are more common in women.[1] This is partly because hormonal changes,[6] such as those that occur in pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause,[6] can decrease tear production.[5] Dry eye is commom in areas of the world where malnutrition is common and the diet is deficient in vitamin A.[23] There are no racial correlates for this disease.[1]

An abnormality of any one of the three layers of tears produces an unstable or inadequate tear film composition, resulting in symptoms of keratitis sicca.[1] To help keep your eyes feeling comfortable and the optical components of your corneal surface in optimal condition, a normal, thin film of tears coats your eyes. Three main layers make up this tear film:

The innermost layer is the thinnest and is composed of mucin (or mucus). This thin layer of mucus is produced by the cells in the conjunctiva (the clear skin that lines the eye). The mucus has multiple functions and helps the overlying watery layer to spread evenly over the eye.

The middle layer is acqueous and is thickest. This layer is essentially a very dilute saltwater solution containing many important proteins for protection and healing. The lacrimal glands under the upper lids and the accessory tear glands produce this watery layer. This layer’s function is to keep the eye moist and comfortable, flush out any dust, debris, or foreign objects that may enter into the eye, and provide wound healing and protection. Defects of the aqueous layer are the most common cause of dry eye syndrome.

The most superficial layer of the tear film is a very thin layer of lipids (fats or oils). These lipids contain omega-3 fatty acids and are produced by the meibomian glands and the glands of Zeis (oil glands in the eyelids). The main function of this lipid layer is to help decrease evaporation of the watery layer beneath it.

 

Deficient tear production

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is usually due to inadequate tear production.[1][3] The aqueous tear layer is affected, resulting in aqueous tear deficiency (ATD) or lacrimal hyposecretion.[1] The lacrimal gland does not produce sufficient tears to keep the entire conjunctiva and cornea covered by a complete layer.[3] This usually occurs in people who are otherwise healthy. Increased age is associated with decreased tearing.[1] This is the most common type found in postmenopausal women.[3][7]

Causes include idiopathic, congenital alacrima, xerophthalmia, lacrimal gland ablation, and sensory denervation.[1] In rare cases, it may be a symptom of collagen vascular diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis[3], Wegener’s granulomatosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1] SjA¶gren’s syndrome[3] and autoimmune diseases associated with SjA¶gren’s syndrome are also conditions associated with aqueous tear deficiency.[1] Drugs such as isotretinoin,[3] sedatives,[3][6] diuretics,[3] tricyclic antidepressants,[6] antihypertensives,[3] oral contraceptives,[1][3] antihistamines,[1][3][5] nasal decongestants,[5] beta-blockers,[1] phenothiazines,[1] atropine,[1], and pain relieving opiates such as morphine[6] can cause or worsen this condition. Infiltration of the lacrimal glands by sarcoidosis or tumors, or postradiation fibrosis of the lacrimal glands can also cause this condition.[1]

Abnormal tear composition

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca can also be caused by abnormal tear composition resulting in rapid evaporation[3] or premature destruction of the tears.[1] When caused by rapid evaporation, it is termed evaporative dry eyes.[3] In this, although the tear gland produces a sufficient amount of tears, the rate of evaporation of the tears is too rapid.[3] There is a loss of water from the tears that results in tears that are too “salty” or hypertonic. As a result, the entire conjunctiva and cornea cannot be kept covered with a complete layer of tears during certain activities or in certain environments.[3] Dry-eye disease is accompanied by an increase in the proinflammatory forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha and mature IL-1 beta) and a decrease in the biologically inactive precursor IL-1 beta in tear fluid. Increased protease activity on the ocular surface may be one mechanism by which precursor IL-1 beta is cleaved to the mature, biologically active form. The conjunctival epithelium appears to be one source of the increased concentration of IL-1 in the tear fluid of patients with dry-eye disease. These results suggest that IL-1 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Other identified factors in the tear film that may be altered in dry eye include epidermal growth factor (EGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-8, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2, and numerous previously undetected tear components, such as angiogenin (ANG), VEGF, and the CXC and CC chemokines IFN-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10, growth-related oncogene (GRO), epithelial neutrophil-activating protein (ENA)-78, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha.

One reason aging is associated with dry eye is because tear production decreases with age.[5] Dry eye  may also be caused by thermal or chemical burns, or (in epidemic cases) by adenoviruses. Diabetics are at increased risk for the disease.[8][9]

An eye injury or other problem with the eyes or eyelids, such as bulging eyes or a drooping eyelid can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca.[4] Disorders of the eyelid can impair the complex blinking motion required to spread tears.[6]

About half of all people who wear contact lenses complain of dry eyes.[5] This is because soft contact lenses, which float on the tear film that covers the cornea, absorb liquid from the tears.[5] Dry eye also occurs or becomes worse after LASIK and other refractive surgeries, in which the corneal nerves are cut during the creation of a corneal flap.[5] The corneal nerves stimulate tear secretion.[5] Dry eyes caused by these procedures often, but not always, resolve after several months.[6] Persons who are thinking about refractive surgery should consider this possible side-effect.[5]

Abnormalities of the lipid tear layer caused by blepharitis and rosacea, and abnormalities of the mucin tear layer caused by vitamin A deficiency, trachoma, diphtheric keratoconjunctivitis, mucocutaneous disorders and certain topical medications are causes of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.[1]

Persons with keratoconjunctivitis sicca have elevated levels of tear nerve growth factor (NGF).[1] It is possible that this ocular surface NGF plays an important role in ocular surface inflammation associated with dry eyes.[1]

Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder, affecting the face and chest, and develops mostly in the 3rd to 6th decades of life. It is characterized by erythema, telangiectasias, and recurrent flushings. During the time of this chronic inflammation, skin typically develops papules, pustules, and swelling. Ocular involvement occurs in 3 to 58% of patients with skin changes. Common ocular signs include blepharoconjunctivitis, meibomitis, and dry eyes. Rosacea keratitis, when present, however, has a poor prognosis and may lead to blindness. Among skin diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection has sometimes been related with rosacea. A higher prevalence of indigestion and Helicobacter pylori infection in rosacea patients than in healthy controls has been reported in limited studies. However, no causal relation has been identified. On the other hand, oral treatment with metronidazole is beneficial in all of three mentioned manifestations of rosacea (skin, eye, indigestion). More research is required to explore this possible link.

 

Diagnosis

Dry eyes can usually be diagnosed by the symptoms alone.[3] Tests can determine both the quantity and the quality of the tears.[6] A slit lamp examination can be performed to diagnose dry eye and to document any damage to the corneal surface.[1][3]

A Schirmer’s test is used to measure the amount of moisture bathing the eye.[3] This test is useful for determining the severity of the condition.[5] A five-minute Schirmer’s test with and without anesthesia using a Whatman #41 filter paper 5 mm wide by 35 mm long is performed.[1] For this test, wetting under 5 mm with or without anesthesia is considered diagnostic for dry eyes.[1]

If the results for the Schirmer’s test are abnormal, a Schirmer II test can be performed to measure reflex secretion.[1] In this test, the nasal mucosa is irritated with a cotton-tipped applicator, after which tear production is measured with a Whatman #41 filter paper.[1] For this test, wetting under 15 mm after five minutes is considered abnormal.[1]

Tear breakup time (TBUT) tests measures the time it takes for tears to break up in the eye.[5] The tear breakup time is determined after placing a drop of fluorescein in the cul-de-sac (under the corner of the lower eyelid).[1]

A tear protein analysis test measures the lysozyme contained within tears.[1] In tears, lysozyme is part of the superficial immune system and accounts for more than 20 percent of total protein content.[1] A lactoferrin (an anti-microbial) analysis test provides good correlation with other tests.[1]

The presence of recently described molecules, the diadenosine polyphosphates, naturally occurring in tears, are abnormally high in different states of ocular dryness. One molecule, Ap4A, which is important in ocular healing (Mediero et al, 2006), can be quantified biochemically simply by acquiring a tear sample with a plain Schirmer test. Utilizing this technique it is possible to determine the concentrations of Ap4A in the tears of patients and in such a manner to diagnose objectively dry eye[10].

Treatment

A variety of approaches can be taken to treatment. These can be summarized as: avoidance of exacerbating factors, tear stimulation and supplementation, wound healing and prevention, increasing tear retention, eyelid cleansing, and treatment of eye inflammation.[11]

General measures

Dry eyes can be exacerbated by smokey environments, dust and air conditioning and by our natural tendency to reduce our blink rate when concentrating. Purposefully blinking, especially during computer use and resting tired eyes are basic steps that can be taken to minimise discomfort.[11] Rubbing one’s eyes can irritate them further, so should be avoided [6]. Conditions such as blepharitis can often co-exist[11] and paying particular attention to cleaning the eyelids morning and night with mild shampoos and warm compresses can improve both conditions.

Environmental control

Dry, drafty environments and those with smoke and dust should be avoided.[3] This includes avoiding hair dryers, heaters, air conditioners or fans, especially when these devices are directed toward the eyes.[6] Wearing glasses or directing gaze downward, for example, by lowering computer screens can be helpful to protect the eyes when aggravating environmental factors cannot be avoided [6]. Using a humidifier,[3][4] especially in the winter,[4] can help by adding moisture to the dry indoor air[6].[11]. For mild and moderate cases, supplemental lubrication is an important part of treatment.[1] Application of artificial tears every few hours[3] can provide temporary relief.

Autologous serum eye drops

None of the commercially available artificial tear preparations include essential tear components such as epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, fibronectin, neurotrophic growth factor, and vitamin A-all of which have been shown to play important roles in the maintenance of a healthy ocular surface epithelial milieu. Autologous serum eye drops contain these essential factors. However, there is some controversy regarding the efficacy of this treatment. At least one study (PubMed) has demonstrated that this modality is more effective than artificial tears in a randomized control study.

Additional options

Lubricating tear ointments can be used during the day, but they generally are used at bedtime due to poor vision after application.[1] They contain white petrolatum, mineral oil, and similar lubricants.[1] They serve as a lubricant and an emollient.[1] Application requires pulling down the eyelid and applying a small amount (0.25 in) inside.[1] Depending on the severity of the condition, it may be applied from every hour to just at bedtime.[1] It should not be used with contact lenses.[1] Specially designed glasses that form a moisture chamber around the eye may be used to create additional humidity.[6]

Medication

Inflammation occurring in response to tears film hypertonicity can be suppressed by mild topical steroids or with topical immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin.[12][13] For example, elevated levels of tear NGF have been shown to be decreased with 0.1% prednisolone.[1]

Fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acids

Consumption of dietary omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a decreased incidence of dry eye syndrome in women.[14] The underlying mechanism may be a reduction in pro-inflammatory proteins in the tear film.[14]. Early experimental work on omega-3 has shown promising results when used in a topical application [15] or given orally.[16]. We suggest using omega-3 fatty acids in both ways; orally and topically (alpha-linolenic acid was used in the study of topicals) .

Restasis

Topical cyclosporine A (tCSA) 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion is an immunosuppressant, marketed in the United States by Allergan under the trade name Restasis[1]. Approved as a prescription drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[5] in 2002, the eye drop is reported to decrease surface inflammation[6]. Restasis is thought to work through inhibition[17] of transcription factors required for cytokine production and T-lymphocyte maturation.[18] A review of the summary basis of approval from the FDA website shows in a trial involving 1200 people, Restasis demonstrated a small positive effect: increased tear production in 15% of patients, compared to 5% with placebo[5]. Thus, only 10% of dry eye patients benefit from Restasis.

The typical prescription for Restasis is one drop instilled in each eye twice a day, 12 hours apart.[1] Restasis should not be used while wearing contact lenses,[1] during eye infections [5] or in people with a history of herpes virus infections[6]. Side effects include burning sensation (common)[5], redness, discharge, watery eyes, eye pain, foreign body sensation, itching, stinging, and blurred vision.[1][5] Long term use of cyclosporin at high doses is associated with an increased risk of cancer[19][20].

Generic alternatives

Less expensive generic alternatives to Restasis are available in some countries. In India, the generic is marketed as Cyclomune by Sun Pharma.[20]

Conserving tears

There are methods that allow both natural and artificial tears to stay longer, but have limited benefit[6]

Blocking tear drainage

In each eye, there are two puncta,[22]  which are small openings that drain tears into the tear ducts[5]. There are methods to partially or completely close the tear ducts.[6] This blocks the flow of tears into the nose, and thus more tears are available to the eyes.[3]

Punctal plugs

Punctal plug

Punctal plugs are inserted into the puncta to block tear drainage.[5] For people who have not found dry eye relief with drugs, punctal plugs may provide limited benefit.[5] The plugs are reserved for people with moderate or severe dry eye when other medical treatment has not been adequate.[5]

Cauterization

If punctal plugs are effective, thermal[6] or electric[1] cauterization of puncti can be performed.

In thermal cauterization, a local anesthetic is used, and then a hot wire is applied.[6] This shrinks the drainage area tissues and causes scarring, which closes the tear duct.[6]

Customized contact lenses

Persons with severe dry eyes may benefit from the Boston Ocular Surface Prosthesis, which is a customized contact lens.[6] Resting on the sclera, the prosthesis creates a fluid filled layer over the cornea, thus preventing corneal drying.[6]

Surgery

In severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, tarsorrhaphy may be performed where the eyelids are partially sewn together. This reduces the palpebral fissure (eyelid separation), ideally leading to a reduction in tear evaporation.[3]

Experimental topical growth factors

Eye drops, containing the factors present in the normal, healthy corneal tissue, that are topically applied to the corneal surface are currently in clinical testing for moderate to severe dry eye. These eye drops are currently in development at A & G Therapeutics, Inc. of Irvine, CA in the USA.

Prognosis

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca usually is a chronic problem.[6] Prognosis of the disease shows considerable variance, depending upon the severity of the condition.[1] Many patients have mild-to-moderate cases, and can be treated symptomatically with lubricants[1] providing an adequate relief of symptoms.[1]

When dry eye symptoms are severe, vision and the quality of life is diminished.[5] People sometimes feel their vision blurs with use,[3] or severe irritation[3] to the point that they have trouble keeping their eyes open[5] or they may not be able to work or drive[5]. Those using a CRT or computer screen all day at work will likely experience extreme discomfort, sometimes to the point of being visually disabled.

Prevention

Experimental procedures to prevent dry eye are being studied. These methods include the topical application of stem cell derived proteins and other nutrients to revitalize the natural protein and nutrient content of the acqueous portion of the tear film.

References

  1. “Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca”. eMedicine. WebMD, Inc.. 2006-04-21. http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic695.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  2. “Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca”. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck & Co., Inc.. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30107.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-18.  “Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca”. The Merck Manual, Home Edition. Merck & Co., Inc.. 2003-02-01. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec20/ch230/ch230d.html. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  3. “Dry eyes”. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2006-10-04. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003087.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  4. Michelle (May-June 2005). “Dealing with Dry Eye”. FDA Consumer Magazine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2005/305_eye.html. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  5. “Dry eyes”. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 2006-06-14. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dry-eyes/DS00463/DSECTION=1. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  6. Sendecka M, Baryluk A, Polz-Dacewicz M (2004). “Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome”. Przegl Epidemiol 58 (1): 227-33. PMID 15218664. 
  7. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Nakar S, Vinker S (2005). “Dry eye in diabetic patients”. Am J Ophthalmol 139 (3): 498-503. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.10.022. PMID 15767060. 
  8. Li H, Pang G, Xu Z (2004). “Tear film function of patients with type 2 diabetes”. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 26 (6): 682-6. PMID 15663232. 
  9. A. Peral, G. Carracedo, M.C. Acosta, J. Gallar, J. Pintor.”Increasing Levels of Diadenosine Polyphosphates in Dry Eye” (2006)Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47 (9):4053-4058 [1]
  10. Lemp MA. (2008). “Management of Dry Eye”. American Journal of Managed Care 14 (4): S88-S101. PMID 18452372. 
  11. Tatlipinar S, Akpek E (2005). “Topical cyclosporine in the treatment of ocular surface disorders”. Br J Ophthalmol 89 (10): 1363-7. doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.070888. PMID 16170133. 
  12. Barber L, Pflugfelder S, Tauber J, Foulks G (2005). “Phase III safety evaluation of cyclosporine 0.1% ophthalmic emulsion administered twice daily to dry eye disease patients for up to 3 years”. Ophthalmology 112 (10): 1790-4. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.05.013. PMID 16102833. 
  13. MiljanoviA,a€¡ B, Trivedi K, Dana M, Gilbard J, Buring J, Schaumberg D (2005). “Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women”. Am J Clin Nutr 82 (4): 887-93. PMID 16210721. 
  14. Rashid S, Jin Y, Ecoiffier T, Barabino S, Schaumberg M, Dana R D (2008). “Topical Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Treatment of Dry Eye”. Arch Ophthalmol 126 (2): 219-225. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2007.61. PMID 18268213. 
  15. Creuzot C, Passemard M, Viau S, Joffre C, Pouliquen P, Elena PP, Bron A, Brignole F (2008). “Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids”. J Fr Ophtalmol 29 (8): 868-73. doi:JFO-10-2006-29-8-0181-5512-101019-200606358. PMID 17075501. 
  16. Micromedex Healthcare Series, (electronic version). Thomson Micromedex, Greenwood Village, Colorado, USA. Available at: http://0-www.thomsonhc.com.library.uchsc.edu:80 (cited: 09/05/06).
  17. Barber LD, Pflugfelder SC, Tauber J, Foulks GN. Phase III safety evaluation of cyclosporine 0.1% ophthalmic emulsion administered twice daily to dry eye disease patients for up to 3 years. Ophthalmology. 2005 Oct;112(10):1790-4.
  18. “Restasis” (PDF). Allergan. January 2008. http://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/restasis_pi.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  19. Dantal J, Hourmant M, Cantarovich D, Giral M, Blancho G, Dreno B, Soulillou JP. (1998). “Effect of long-term immunosuppression in kidney-graft recipients on cancer incidence: randomised comparison of two cyclosporin regimens”. The Lancet 351 (9103): 623-628. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)08496-1. PMID 9500317.
  20. “Sun Pharma Product List”. Sun Pharma. http://www.sunpharma.com/sunpharma-products/sunpharma-formulation/spopup11.php. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  21. “Dry eye syndrome”. Health encyclopaedia. NHS Direct. 2006-04-10. http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleId=137&PrintPage=1. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  22. “Dry eyes syndrome”. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2006-10-04. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000426.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  23. Meiero A, Peral A, Pintor J. (2006) Dual roles of diadenosine polyphosphates in corneal epithelial cell migration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Oct;47(10):4500-6.

 


Lupus Disease Symptoms And Causes

What is Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a human disorder classified by the presence of chronic widespread pain and tactile allodynia.[1] While the criteria for such an entity have not yet been thoroughly developed, the recognition that fibromyalgia involves more than just pain has led to the frequent use of the term “fibromyalgia syndrome”. It is not contagious, and recent studies suggest that people with fibromyalgia may be genetically predisposed.[2] The disorder is not directly life-threatening.

Do you have pain from head to toe? Are you tossing and turning throughout the night, unable to sleep? Do you wake up to pain and a foggy brain in the morning? These are common symptoms experienced by fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients.The most common sites of pain include the neck, back, shoulders, pelvic girdle, and hands, but any body part can be affected. Fibromyalgia patients experience a range of symptoms of varying intensities that wax and wane over time.

Signs and symptoms
Widespread pain. Fibromyalgia is characterized by pain in specific areas of your body when pressure is applied, including the back of your head, upper back and neck, upper chest, elbows, hips and knees. The pain generally persists for months at a time and is often accompanied by stiffnessYou may have some degree of constant pain, but the pain may get worse in response to activity, stress, weather changes and other factors. You may have a deep ache or a burning pain. You may have muscle tightening or spasms. Many people have migratory pain (pain that moves around the body).

Risk Factors of Fibromyalgia
One study reported that 28% of the children of mothers with fibromyalgia also develop the disorder. Offspring who developed fibromyalgia were no more likely to have psychological disorders than those who did not.

Primary fibromyalgia is the most common type. Many experts believe that fibromyalgia is not a disease but rather a chronic pain condition brought on by several abnormal body responses to stress. Physical injuries, emotional trauma, or viral infections such as Epstein-Barr may be triggers of the disorder, but none have proven to be a cause of primary fibromyalgia.It is believed that individuals with FM may have low levels of certain chemicals in the brain such as serotonin and norepinephrine. Low levels of these brain chemicals can cause depression and contribute to the pain and fatigue experienced in FM.

How is it treated?
Analgesics or “pain relievers” interact with receptors in the body to stop the sensation of pain from various sources. Analgesic drugs vary in strength and addiction potential from over-the-counter Tylenol to stronger prescription medications such as propoxyphene/acetaminophen (Darvocet) and tramadol (Ultram).

Lyrica: This is the first drug approved by the FDA specifically for the treatment of fibromyalgia. While this is a step forward, it is no cure. Lyrica has been shown to cut pain levels in half, but only in 30% of the people who took it.

Exercise. The emphasis is often on muscle conditioning and programs to improve aerobic fitness (such as swimming, cycling, walking and stationary cross-country ski machines) as well as physical therapy. Patients should be told that exercise is safe and effective. After an initial training period, the exercise regimen chosen should be done daily for 30 to 40 minutes.

Widely used diagnostic criteria published by the American College of Rheumatologists establish that a person has fibromyalgia if he or she has had widespread pain for at –


Lupus Causes And Diagnosis

WHAT IS PEYRONIE’S DISEASE?

Peyronie’s disease consists of hard, fibrous tissue, called plaques, developing within the penile shaft. The plaques are hard, thickened and stiff areas, actually a kind of internal scarring. In this fibroid tissue also calcium compounds can accumulate, making the plaques even harder.

The Peyronie’s disease is also called cavernositis, and also sometimes plastic induration. There is probably a chronic inflammation process that leads to this scarring.

The thickened area has less blood flow than normal penile tissue, and do not fill with blood and swell as the normal spongy areas in the inside of the penis. Therefore the penis swells more at the opposite side, and gets a curvature towards the side containing the plaques when erected.

If the plaques are found at several places, more complex deformations will develop. The abnormal bending, twisting or swelling within the penis, often also lead to painful erections.

Any man from the age of 18 and upwards can develop Peyronie’s disease. The average age of men suffering from Peyronie’s disease is 50.

THE SYMPTOMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONDITION

The three main characteristics of cavernositis are:

  • One or more small hard lumps underneath the skin, or a continuous hard, stiff and thickened area.
  • Abnormal bent or crooked penis when erect. All penises have some curvature, but by this disease, the penile bend increases, and one may get a very curved penis. The penis may be bent as a banana or in an angular fashion. The penile bending is most often up, but may be down, to the left side, to right or sloping.

-The bending is usually to the same side as that of the hard thickened area when the penis is erected.

-The hard areas in the erected penis may look like bumps, making the penis irregular.

  • Sometimes the penis bends greatly enough to make sexual intercourse difficult, or impossible.
  • Pain during erections caused by the pressure from the hard areas in the penis, or from the stretched skin at the opposite side of the penis.
  • One may not notice the bend immediately, as it tends to develop over one to three months and later than the hardness and stiffness of the indurations.
  • The plastic induration may progress and cause impotence. Sometimes the Peyroni’s disease will clear up by itself, but this may take several years.

 

THE CAUSES OF PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

The exact cause of the induration is unknown. It’s not a sign of an underlying serious condition, and it is not a sexually transmitted infection. It is possible that the disease can begin with an inflammation in the penile tissue. An inflammation may be caused by an allergic or auto-immune reaction. Although the Peyronie’s disease is not an infection, an initial infection can damage the penile tissue and cause an inflammation that develops into Peyronie’s disease. Men having the inflammatory condition called Systemic Lupus Erytematosus more often get Peyronie’s disease.

Vitamin E deficiency seems to be a contributing factor in causing the disease. Diabetes may cause damage of blood vessels, and if this damage occurs in the erectile bodies of the penis, Peyronie’s disease can develop. Peyronie’s disease is sometimes a side effect of the drug Inderal (propanolol) used against high blood pressure.

Sometimes a physical injury to the penis that causes internal bleeding, or a series of such injuries, is the initial cause. A habit of violent sexual activity may cause such injuries. It is thought that some men may have a genetic disposition to the condition.

Plastic induration of the penis is not a cancer, and cannot cause cancer, however a lump or deformation in your genitals that develops, must be examined.

TREATMENT OG PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

Not all men with Payronie’s disease require treatment. The disease sometimes go away by itself. If the condition is pronounced, it is also difficult to find a remedy that can cure every sign of the disease, but several methods can take away most penis changes associated with Peyronie’s. Here is a survey of treatment methods used today.

Tamoxifen – In its early stages of the disease a medication called Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent the formation of the fibrous plaque by Peyronie’s disease. This drug is also used in the treatment of breast cancer, but the two conditions are not related.

 

Vitamin E and B – Vitamin E and B is sometimes effective in easing the pain and as a treatment for the penile deformity by Peyronie’s disease.

 

Verapamil – Verapamil, often used in the treatment of high blood pressure, has been shown to decrease the size of the plaque and decrease the pain when injected directly into the plaque, and thus also improve the penis shape distortion by peyronie’s disease.

 

Shock wave therapy – Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, or ESWT, a new treatment, is being used in some hospitals for the Peyronie’s disease. Although the initial results of this new approach to treat Peyronie’s disease have been promising, the long-term outcome is still undetermined.

 

Surgery – This is sometimes considered if Payroni’s disease has lasted for a year or more and it hasn’t progressed or regressed for at least three months. By the Nesbitt procedure one removes tissue opposite to the curve to straighten the penis. Another procedure involves putting a graft or part of a vein within the fibrous plaque to lengthen this area. In certain cases of Pyrenees disease, surgical insertion of a penile prosthesis (implant) is recommended.

Radiation therapy – This treatment modality has been tried, but the results are unpredictable and sometimes the opposite of the intended one.

 

Traction devices – On the market, you can buy mechanical devices to use on the penis some time daily that gently pull upon the penile tissue to straighten out the penis, and thus mending the penis from the curvature caused by Peyronie’s disease.


Lupus Cancer Research

Aarkstore.com announce a new report through its vast collection of market research report :

R&D Trends: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Benlysta’s FDA approval provides hope for disease treatment, future trial design, and other pipeline candidates

For some-more information, Great fully visit:

http://www.aarkstore.com/reports/R-D-Trends-Systemic-Lupus-Erythematosus-Benlysta’s-FDA-approval-provides-hope-for-disease-treatment-future-trial-design-and-other-pipeline-candidates-136194.html

Introduction

There remains considerable debate over the optimum efficacy measure and clinical trial design in SLE. While the SLE Responder Index has proved successful in demonstrating the efficacy of Benlysta (belimumab; Human Genome Sciences/GlaxoSmithKline) such that many other trials are now following suit, it is unclear if this will spur other successes.

Features and benefits

* Benchmark novel and existing therapies using the ideal target product profiles identified by and access leading rheumatologists’ opinion
* Support R&D decision making by evaluating lupus clinical trial designs that have set a precedent, as well as analysis of discontinued projects

Highlights

Identified 32 drug candidates in development for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with four products in Phase III. Recent negative outcomes of major clinical trials threaten to move industry away from drug development in SLE, but Benlysta’s recent US approval may ignite further commercial interest in this disease.
Two new B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) candidates have emerged within the late-stage SLE pipeline. Eli Lilly’s LY2127399 and Anthera Pharmaceuticals’ A-623 are both being investigated based on the novel SLE Responder Index. While this approach was successful for Benlysta, it remains to be seen if this can be emulated by other candidates.
The FDA published its formal guidance for industry for developing a medical product for SLE in June 2010, pointing to the use of disease activity indices in clinical trials. However, many specialists believe that the answer is to move away from these kinds of instruments and to check objective measures, such as biomarkers.

Your key questions answered

* What lessons can be learned from past clinical trials in SLE and how can these be applied to novel pipeline candidates?
* How does the recent approval of Benlysta impact the future of drug development for SLE?
* What are the most promising trends seen in early stages of the SLE pipeline?

Table of Contents :
Executive Summary
Strategic scoping and focus
key findings
Related reports
OVERVIEW
Catalyst
Summary
CLINICAL PIPELINE OVERVIEW
Lupus pipeline
Notable movements in the SLE pipeline
Overall increase in the number of late-stage candidates
B-cell directed therapies are leading the way
Lack of industry-sponsored clinical trials conducted in Japan
Compounds recently discontinued
Orencia (abatacept; Bristol-Myers Squibb)
Apremilast (CC-10004; Celgene)
NNC-0152-0000-0001 (Novo Nordisk)
Gusperimus trihydrochloride (NKT-01; Nippon Kayaku)
MEDI-546
TARGET PRODUCT PROFILE
Off-label treatments are the gold-standard therapies for SLE
Comparator one: Rituxan/MabThera (rituximab; Biogen Idec/Roche)
Comparator two: CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil; Roche/Vifor Pharma)
Target product profile versus current level of attainment
CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
Regulatory guidance on clinical trial design
FDA finally publishes full formal industry guidance
Summary of formal FDA guidance for industry in SLE
Summary of FDA guidance for industry in lupus nephritis
EMA guidelines
Similarities can be seen in recent trial designs
Standard of care
Endpoints


Treatments For Lupus

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & the Organic Medicinal Treatments

Author: AMY

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis or ME., is about a poorly understood, variably debilitating disorder or disorders of uncertain causation.

Symptoms of CFS include widespread muscle and joint pain, cognitive difficulties, chronic, often severe mental and physical exhaustion and etc. Fatigue is a common symptom in many illnesses, but CFS is a multi-systemic disease and is relatively rare by comparison.

The most commonly used diagnostic criteria and definition of CFS for research and clinical purposes was published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC definition of CFS requires two criteria be fulfilled:

  1. A new onset (not lifelong) of unexplained, persistent fatigue unrelated to exertion and not substantially relieved by rest, that causes a significant reduction in previous activity levels.
  2. Four or more of the following symptoms that last six months or longer:
  • Impaired memory or concentration
  • Post-exertional malaise, where physical or mental exertions bring on “extreme, prolonged exhaustion and sickness”
  • Unrefreshing sleep
  • Muscle pain (myalgia)
  • Pain in multiple joints (arthralgia)
  • Headaches of a new kind or greater severity
  • Sore throat, frequent or recurring
  • Tender lymph nodes (cervical or axillary)

 

CFS is thought to have an incidence of 4 adults per 1,000 in the United States. For unknown reasons CFS occurs more often in women than men and in people in their 40s and 50s.The illness is estimated to be less prevalent among children and adolescents but studies are contradictory as to the degree. There is no medical test which is widely accepted to be diagnostic of CFS. It remains a diagnosis of exclusion based largely on patient history and symptomatic criteria although a number of tests can aid diagnosis.

The majority of CFS cases start suddenly, usually accompanied by a “flu-like illness” which is more likely to occur in winter, while a significant proportion of cases begin within several months of severe adverse stress. An Australian prospective study found that after infection by viral and non-viral pathogens, a sub-set of individuals met the criteria for CFS, with the researchers concluding that “post-infective fatigue syndrome is a valid illness model for investigating one pathophysiological pathway to CFS” The accurate prevalence and exact roles of infection and stress in the development of CFS however are currently unknown.

Treatment – ImmunoCare and Immunomax

ImmunoCare and Immunomax are highly potent, quantifiably effective, all natural immunostimulating treatments for immune deficient conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (FMG). These treatments are composed of high intensity antiviral, antimicrobial, and immunostimulant organic extracts which are clinically proven to eradicate the pathogens associated with the root cause of CFS and FMG, which are commonly triggered by the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and infectious microbes.

More information refers to: http://www.purehealing-us.com  

 

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/chronic-fatigue-syndrome-the-organic-medicinal-treatments-915575.html

About the Author

staff of Nature Power Company, which is a network company dedicated to promoting customers’ websites and developing softwares.


Lupus Cures

Lupus Pain Relief

Author: Scott Michale

While lupus can be a debilitating disease, it doesn’t have to be. If you can find a way to relieve the pain of lupus, you can continue on with most of your normal, day to day activities.

Here are some ways you can find Lupus Pain relief

Consider NSAIDs

Lupus can cause pain, swelling and stiffness of the joints. NSAIDs (or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can relieve all of these symptoms.

Lupus can also cause chest pains, usually the result of swelling around the heart and lungs. NSAIDs can relieve this swelling and the resulting pain.

There are many NSAIDs available over the counter. Some of them include aspirin, naproxen sodium (found in Aleve) and ibuprofen (found in Motrin). There are also prescription strength NSAIDs that are much stronger and can be prescribed to you by a doctor. However, be careful. Taking these drugs can cause stomach problems. In fact, if you already suffer from stomach problems, like ulcers, you should avoid taking NSAIDs.

Ask Your Doctor about Antimalarial Drugs

Many people suffering from lupus can go for long periods when their symptoms decrease, or even disappear altogether. On the other hand, they can also experience flares, periods when their symptoms, including pain, are unusually severe.

Doctors have found that antimalarial drugs, drugs meant to prevent and treat malaria, can also be used to prevent flares. And while there can be some side effects (like muscle weakness and vision problems) many find them easier to deal with than the pain a lupus flare can cause.

There was a time when those suffering from lupus just had to suffer with the pain their condition caused. But thanks to advances in medical science, you can find lupus pain relief.

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/diseases-and-conditions-articles/lupus-pain-relief-1687937.html

About the Author

Be Sure To Visit…Lupus Pain relief

http://www.lupuspainrelief.com