Positive Lupus Anticoagulant And Pregnancy

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role in treating all kinds of disease and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Antinuclear antibody is defined as specific class of auto antibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells instead of performing the normal antibody function. It can be detected through blood sample withdrawn from the patient vein.

2. Causes
a) Infection and inflammation
Infection and inflammation caused by bacteria or virus speeding up the body immune system function, but in some cases, bacteria and virus induce the immune system to produce antibodies which directed against the tissues of the body including antinuclear antibody. b) Medication
i) Phenytoin
Pheytoin may increase the risk of production of antinuclear antibody, leading to increasing the risk of malformations and birth defects.
ii) Antibotics
Long term uses of antibody may increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody as the medication causes abnormal reaction to the immune system.
iii) Methyldopa
The medication is used to dilate blood vessels for treating high blood pressure, but long term use of this type of medication may decrease the risk of immune disorder in production of antinuclear antibody.
c) Aging
As we age, the levels of antinuclear antibody increases and in some older adults (5% to 40%) may have mildly elevated levels caused by weakening immune function.
d) Diseases
Some diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may also increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody.

3. How antinuclear antibody effects infertility
Under normal conditions, when a woman becomes pregnant, the white blood cells in her uterus produce protective, blocking antibodies. In case of antinuclear antibody, the white blood cells recognize the fetus as a foreign invasion and attack it, leading to miscarriage.

4. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants,it is a purified preparation derived from animal tissue. It helps to increase the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss.
b) Aspirin
Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner agent, it helps to increase the blood circulating to the reproductive organs, thereby reducing the risk of antinuclear antibody attacking the fetus or the women reproductive tissues. It is recommendation to take 80 mg per day, which is equivalent to a baby aspirin. if necessary.

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus And Pregnancy Emedicine Rheumatology

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body ‘attack on the immune system itself. The pattern of joints affected is usually symmetrical, involves the hands and other joints and is worse in the morning.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease, involving other organs, whereas osteoarthritis is limited to the joints. Over time, both forms of arthritis can be crippling. SLE Systemic Lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The etiology of cardiovascular disease probably involved an interaction between risk factors traditional and inflammation induced immune-mediated vascular injury, and hormonal and treatment-related factors.

autoimmune and chronic inflammatory nature of both RA and SLE may contribute to atherogenesis. However, there are enough differences in the pathogenesis, organ involvement, and the modalities of treatment of SLE and RA suggest that the differences may exist in the development of atherosclerosis in each of these diseases
Entries the disease is often progressive, with fatigue, morning stiffness (with a duration of more than one hour), diffuse muscle pain, loss of appetite and weakness. Finally, joint pain appears, with warmth, swelling, tenderness, and stiffness of the joint after inactivity.

The cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown. However, RA involves an attack on the body’s own immune cells (autoimmune disease). Different cases may have different causes. Infectious, genetic and hormonal factors may play a role.RA usually affects the joints on both sides of the body also — wrists, fingers, knees, feet and ankles are the most affected.

Difformits result from the destruction of cartilage, bone erosions, and tendon inflammation and fracture. A joint life-threatening complications can occur when the cervical spine becomes unstable as a result of RA.Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease that attacks the first synovium, a connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity between joints and secret liquid lubrication.

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Pregnancy Induced Lupus Nephritis

Signs and symptoms

Excessive urination and extreme thirst (especially for cold water and sometimes ice or ice water) are typical for DI. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are quite similar to those of untreated diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine is not sweet as it does not contain glucose and there is no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose). Blurred vision is a rarity. Signs of dehydration may also appear in some individuals since the body cannot conserve much (if any) of the water it takes in.

The extreme urination continues throughout the day and the night. In children, DI can interfere with appetite, eating, weight gain, and growth as well. They may present with fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. Adults with untreated DI may remain healthy for decades as long as enough water is consumed to offset the urinary losses. However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium.

Diagnosis

In order to distinguish DI from other causes of excess urination, blood glucose levels, bicarbonate levels, and calcium levels need to be tested. Measurement of blood electrolytes can reveal a high sodium level (hypernatremia as dehydration develops). Urinalysis demonstrates a dilute urine with a low specific gravity. Urine osmolarity and electrolyte levels are typically low.

A fluid deprivation test helps determine whether DI is caused by:

excessive intake of fluid

a defect in ADH production

a defect in the kidneys’ response to ADH

This test measures changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition when fluids are withheld and as dehydration occurs. The body’s normal response to dehydration is to concentrate urine and conserve water, so urine becomes more concentrated and urination becomes less frequent. Those with DI continue to urinate large amounts of dilute urine in spite of not drinking any fluids. Sometimes measuring blood levels of ADH during this test is also necessary.

To distinguish between the main forms, desmopressin stimulation is also used; desmopressin can be taken by injection, a nasal spray, or a tablet. While taking desmopressin, a patient should drink fluids or water only when thirsty and not at other times, as this can lead to sudden fluid accumulation in the central nervous system. If desmopressin reduces urine output and increases osmolarity, the pituitary production of ADH is deficient, and the kidney responds normally. If the DI is due to renal pathology, desmopressin does not change either urine output or osmolarity.

If central DI is suspected, testing of other hormones of the pituitary, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is necessary to discover if a disease process (such as a prolactinoma, or histiocytosis, syphilis, tuberculosis or other tumor or granuloma) is affecting pituitary function. Most people with this form have either experienced past head trauma or have stopped ADH production for an unknown reason.

Habit drinking (in its severest form termed psychogenic polydipsia) is the most common imitator of diabetes insipidus at all ages. While many adult cases in the medical literature are associated with mental disorders, most patients with habit polydipsia have no other detectable disease. The distinction is made during the water deprivation test, as some degree of urinary concentration above isosmolar is usually obtained before the patient becomes dehydrated.

Pathophysiology

Electrolyte and volume homeostasis is a complex mechanism that balances the body’s requirements for blood pressure and the main electrolytes sodium and potassium. In general, electrolyte regulation precedes volume regulation. When the volume is severely depleted, however, the body will retain water at the expense of deranging electrolyte levels.

The regulation of urine production occurs in the hypothalamus, which produces ADH in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. After synthesis, the hormone is transported in neurosecretory granules down the axon of the hypothalamic neuron to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland where it is stored for later release. In addition, the hypothalamus regulates the sensation of thirst in the ventromedial nucleus by sensing increases in serum osmolarity and relaying this information to the cortex.

The main effector organ for fluid homeostasis is the kidney. ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubule, specifically it acts on proteins called aquaporins which open to allow water into the collecting duct cells. This increase in permeability allows for reabsorption of water into the bloodstream, thus concentrating the urine.

Classification

There are several forms of DI:

Neurogenic

Main article: Neurogenic diabetes insipidus

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus, more commonly known as central diabetes insipidus, is due to a lack of vasopressin production in the brain.

Nephrogenic

Main article: Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to the inability of the kidney to respond normally to ADH.

Dipsogenic

Dipsogenic DI is due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, which is located in the hypothalamus. This defect results in an abnormal increase in thirst and fluid intake that suppresses ADH secretion and increases urine output. Desmopressin is ineffective, and can lead to fluid overload as the thirst remains.

Gestational

Gestational DI only occurs during pregnancy. While all pregnant women produce vasopressinase in the placenta, which breaks down ADH, this can assume extreme forms in GDI.

Most cases of gestational DI can be treated with desmopressin. In rare cases, however, an abnormality in the thirst mechanism causes gestational DI, and desmopressin should not be used.
Diabetes insipidus is also associated with some serious diseases of pregnancy. These are pre-eclampsia, HELLP Syndrome and Acute fatty liver of pregnancy. These cause diabetes insipidus by activating hepatic vasopressinase. It is important to consider these if a woman presents with diabetes insipidus in pregnancy, because the treatment of these diseases requires delivery of the baby before the disease will improve. Failure to treat these diseases promptly can lead to maternal or perinatal mortality.

Treatment

Central DI and gestational DI respond to desmopressin. Carbamazepine, an anti-convulsive medication, has also had some success in this type of DI. Also gestational DI tends to abate on its own 4 to 6 weeks following labour, though some women may develop it again in subsequent pregnancies. In dipsogenic DI, desmopressin is not usually an option.

Desmopressin will be ineffective in nephrogenic DI. Instead, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (a thiazide diuretic) or indomethacin can improve nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Thiazide diuretics are sometimes combined with amiloride to prevent hypokalemia. It seems paradoxical to treat an extreme diuresis with a diuretic but the thiazide diuretics will increase proximal tubule reabsorption of sodium and water and decrease distal delivery of fluid to the distal nephron thereby decreasing excretion rates. Again, adequate hydration is important for patients with DI, as they may become dehydrated easily.

Lithium-induced nephrogenic DI may be effectively managed with the administration of amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic often used in conjunction with thiazide or loop diuretics. Clinicians have been aware of lithium toxicity for many years and traditionally have administered thiazide diuretics for lithium-induced polyuria and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. However, recently amiloride has been shown to be a successful treatment for this condition.

Notes

^ Perkins RM, Yuan CM, Welch PG (March 2006). “Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus: report of a novel treatment strategy and literature review”. Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 10 (1): 637. doi:10.1007/s10157-005-0397-0. PMID 16544179.

^ Kalelioglu I, Kubat Uzum A, Yildirim A, Ozkan T, Gungor F, Has R (2007). “Transient gestational diabetes insipidus diagnosed in successive pregnancies: review of pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of delivery”. Pituitary 10 (1): 8793. doi:10.1007/s11102-007-0006-1. PMID 17308961.

^ Finch CK, Kelley KW, Williams RB. Treatment of lithium-induced diabetes insipidus with amiloride. Pharmacotherapy. 2003 Apr;23(4):546-50. PMID 12680486

References

The public domain document “Diabetes Insipidus”, NIH Publication No. 01-4620, December 2000.

External links

The Diabetes Insipidus Foundation, Inc

Information on Diabetes Insipidus

vde

Endocrine pathology: endocrine diseases (E00-35, 240-259)

Pancreas/

glucose

metabolism

Hypofunction

Diabetes mellitus

types: (type 1, type 2, MODY 1 2 3 4 5 6) complications (coma, angiopathy, ketoacidosis, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, cardiomyopathy)

insulin receptor (Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome) Insulin resistance

Hyperfunction

Hypoglycemia beta cell (Hyperinsulinism) G cell (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome)

Hypothalamic/

pituitary axes

Hypothalamus

gonadotropin (Kallmann syndrome, Adiposogenital dystrophy) CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency) vasopressin (Neurogenic diabetes insipidus) general (Hypothalamic hamartoma)

Pituitary

Hyperpituitarism

anterior (Acromegaly, Hyperprolactinaemia, Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion) posterior (SIADH) general (Nelson’s syndrome)

Hypopituitarism

anterior (Kallmann syndrome, Growth hormone deficiency, ACTH deficiency/Secondary adrenal insufficiency) posterior (Neurogenic diabetes insipidus) general (Empty sella syndrome, Pituitary apoplexy, Sheehan’s syndrome, Lymphocytic hypophysitis)

Thyroid

Hypothyroidism

Iodine deficiency Cretinism (Congenital hypothyroidism) Myxedema Euthyroid sick syndrome

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroxinemia (Thyroid hormone resistance, Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia) Hashitoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis factitia Graves’ disease

Thyroiditis

Acute infectious Subacute (De Quervain’s, Subacute lymphocytic) Autoimmune/chronic (Hashimoto’s, Postpartum, Riedel’s)

Goitre

Endemic goitre Toxic nodular goitre Toxic multinodular goitre

Thyroid nodule

Parathyroid

Hypoparathyroidism

Pseudohypoparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism

Primary Secondary Tertiary Osteitis fibrosa cystica

Adrenal

Hyperfunction

aldosterone: Hyperaldosteronism/Primary aldosteronism (Conn syndrome, Bartter syndrome, Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism) AME Liddle’s syndrome 17 CAH

cortisol: Cushing’s syndrome (Pseudo-Cushing’s syndrome)

sex hormones: 21 CAH 11 CAH

Hypofunction/

Adrenal insufficiency

(Addison’s, WF)

aldosterone: Hypoaldosteronism (21 CAH, 11 CAH)

cortisol: CAH (Lipoid, 3, 11, 17, 21)

sex hormones: 17 CAH

Gonads

ovarian: Polycystic ovary syndrome Premature ovarian failure

testicular: enzymatic (5-alpha-reductase deficiency, 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency) Androgen receptor (Androgen insensitivity syndrome)

general: Hypogonadism (Delayed puberty) Hypergonadism (Precocious puberty)

Height

Gigantism Dwarfism/Short stature (Laron syndrome, Psychosocial)

Multiple

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS1, APS2) Carcinoid syndrome Multiple endocrine neoplasia (1, 2A, 2B) Progeria Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome

endocrine navs: anat/physio/dev/hormones, noncongen/congen/neoplasia, symptoms+signs/eponymous, proc

vde

Urinary system Pathology Urologic disease / Uropathy (N0039, 580599)

Abdominal

Nephropathy/

(nephritis+

nephrosis)

Glomerulopathy/

glomerulitis/

(glomerulonephritis+

glomerulonephrosis)

Primarily

nephrotic

Non-proliferative

.0 Minimal change .1 Focal segmental .2 Membranous

Proliferative

.3 Mesangial proliferative .4 Endocapillary proliferative .5/.6 Membranoproliferative/mesangiocapillary

By condition

Diabetic Amyloidosis

Primarily

nephritic,

.7 RPG

Type I RPG/Type II hypersensitivity

Goodpasture’s syndrome

Type II RPG/Type III hypersensitivity

Post-streptococcal Lupus (DPN) IgA/Berger’s

Type III RPG/Pauci-immune

Wegener’s granulomatosis Microscopic polyangiitis

Tubulopathy/

tubulitis

Proximal

RTA (RTA 2)

Thick ascending

Bartter syndrome

Distal convoluted

Gitelman syndrome

Collecting duct

Liddle’s syndrome RTA (RTA 1) Diabetes insipidus (Nephrogenic)

Renal papilla

Renal papillary necrosis

Major calyx/pelvis

Hydronephrosis Pyonephrosis Reflux nephropathy

Any/all

Acute tubular necrosis

Interstitium

Interstitial nephritis (Pyelonephritis, Danubian endemic familial nephropathy)

Any/all

General syndromes

Renal failure (Acute renal failure, Chronic renal failure) Uremic pericarditis Uremia

Vascular

Renal artery stenosis Hypertensive nephropathy Renovascular hypertension

Other

Analgesic nephropathy Renal osteodystrophy Nephroptosis Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome

Ureter

Ureteritis Ureterocele Megaureter

Pelvic

Bladder

Cystitis (Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, Hunner’s ulcer, Trigonitis, Hemorrhagic cystitis) Neurogenic bladder Vesicointestinal fistula Vesicoureteral reflux

Urethra

Urethritis (Non-gonococcal urethritis) Urethral syndrome Urethral stricture/Meatal stenosis

Any/all

Obstructive uropathy Urinary tract infection Retroperitoneal fibrosis Urolithiasis (Kidney stone, Renal colic) Malacoplakia

urinary system navs: anat/physio/dev, noncongen/acid+base/congen/neoplasia, symptoms+signs/eponymous, proc

vde

Sex linkage: X-linked disorders

X-linked recessive

Immune

Chronic granulomatous disease (CYBB) Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1 IPEX X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

Hematologic

Haemophilia A Haemophilia B X-linked sideroblastic anemia

Endocrine

Androgen insensitivity syndrome/Kennedy disease KAL1 Kallmann syndrome X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita

Metabolic

amino acid: Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency Oculocerebrorenal syndrome

dyslipidemia: Adrenoleukodystrophy

carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency Danon disease/glycogen storage disease Type IIb

lipid storage disorder: Fabry’s disease

mucopolysaccharidosis: Hunter syndrome

purine-pyrimidine metabolism: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

mineral: Menkes disease

Nervous system

X-Linked mental retardation: Coffin-Lowry syndrome Fragile X syndrome MASA syndrome X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome Siderius X-linked mental retardation syndrome

eye disorders: Color blindness (red and green, but not blue) Ocular albinism (1) Norrie disease Choroideremia

other: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX2-3) Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease SMAX2

Skin and related tissue

Dyskeratosis congenita Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) X-linked ichthyosis X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy

Neuromuscular

Becker’s muscular dystrophy/Duchenne Centronuclear myopathy (MTM1) Conradi-Hnermann syndrome

Urologic

Alport syndrome Dent’s disease X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

No primary system

Barth syndrome McLeod syndrome Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome

X-linked dominant

X-linked hypophosphatemia Focal dermal hypoplasia Aicardi syndrome Incontinentia pigmenti Rett syndrome CHILD syndrome Lujan-Fryns syndrome

Categories: Endocrinology | Nephrology | DiabetesHidden categories: Articles needing additional references from February 2009 | All articles needing additional references

Signs Of Lupus During Pregnancy

Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that manifests when the body’s immune system starts to attack its own tissues and organs. The inflammation that results from lupus can affect several areas throughout the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart and lungs.

Lupus is far more often observed in women than in men but no clear connection for this observation has been discerned. There are four types of lupus in existence these are: systemic lupus erythematosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-induced lupus erythematosus and neonatal lupus. Of the types mentioned, systemic lupus erythematosus is by far the most prevalent and serious form of lupus.

The prognosis for people with this disease was very poor in the past however improvements in the diagnosis and treatment methods implemented for lupus has significantly enhanced the likelihood of surviving with the condition. Once the disease is treated most people with the disease can lead regular lives.

Because it is an autoimmune disease, it not only attacks foreign substances that may enter the body, such as bacteria and viruses, but also triggers the immune system to attack healthy tissue. As said before this brings about inflammation and consequential injury to different sections of the body, including the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels and brain.
It is not yet known what causes the disease, like other autoimmune diseases it is a mystery. It is theorized that it is the result of a combination of factors, most notably, the patient’s genes and the environment. Some experts also believe that a person may inherit a predisposition to lupus, but not the actual disease itself. Instead, people with this probable inherited predisposition for the disease may only develop the condition when they make some form of contact with something in the environment that may induce lupus, including some types of medication or a virus.

The disease does not always develop in the same way for all individuals who are plagued by the disease . Signs and symptoms may materialize suddenly or develop over time. They may be mild or severe, and may be transient with fluctuating periods of the associated symptoms or permanent. Most people affected by lupus have a mild form of the disease characterized by episodes which are deemed flares when signs and symptoms are worsened for a short period, then improve or even disappear entirely for some time.
The signs and symptoms of lupus that an individual will experience will greatly depend on the areas of the body that are affected by the condition. However the more regular signs and symptoms may include any of the following:

Anxiety
Depression
Memory loss
Fatigue
Fever
Weight loss or gain
Fingers and toes that turn white or blue during exposure to cold or during stressful periods. This is called Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Joint pain, stiffness and swelling
Butterfly-shaped rash or malar rash on the face that covers sections of the cheeks and the bridge of the nose
Skin lesions that appear and are actually worsened by sun exposure
Mouth sores
Hair loss (alopecia)
Shortness of breath
Chest pain
Dry eyes
Easy bruising

Once an individual develops an unexplained rash, ongoing fever, persistent aching or fatigue, he or she should consult a doctor to rule out the possibility that it could be lupus.

Once a person has been diagnosed with lupus, he or she should have regular consultations with a doctor so that the condition can be treated and monitored effectively. Also any new symptoms should be looked on immediately.


Lupus Nephritis Treatment Pregnancy

Lupus Nephritis Treatment In India

What is lupus nephritis c

Lupus nephritis is an inflammation of the kidney caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of the immune system. SLE typically causes harm to the skin, joints, kidneys, and brain.

The causes of SLE are unknown. Many factors may play a role, including : –
genderSLE is more common in women than men hereditya gene passed down by a parent infections viruses environmental causes…
What are the symptoms of lupus nephritis c

Lupus nephritis may cause weight gain, high blood pressure, dark urine, or swelling around the eyes, legs, ankles, or fingers. However, some people with SLE have no overt symptoms of kidney disease, which must be diagnosed by blood and urine tests…..

How is lupus nephritis diagnosed c

Diagnosis may require urine and blood tests as well as a kidney biopsy.

Urine test : – Blood or protein in the urine is a sign of kidney damage….

Blood test : – The kidneys remove waste materials like creatinine and urea from the blood. If the blood contains high levels of these substances, kidney function is declining. Your doctor should estimate your glomerular filtration rate based on your creatinine score….

Kidney biopsy : – A biopsy is a procedure to obtain a tissue sample for examination with a microscope. To obtain a sample of your kidney tissue, your doctor will insert a long needle through the skin. Examining the tissue with a microscope can confirm the diagnosis of lupus nephritis and help to determine how far the disease has progressed….

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus And Pregnancy Today’s Scenario

Bleeding gums can cause a lot of discomfort – both physically and mentally. I have compiled a list of eight possible causes for gums to bleed.

Brushing or flossing too vigorously – The rough mechanical action of brushing or flossing too vigorously may damage and irritate the sensitive oral tissues which may cause gums to bleed. If the bleeding continues for a few days then it is important to visit a dentist immediately. However, bleeding gums are often an indication of gum disease. Brushing and flossing hard enough to make healthy gum tissue bleed is fairly rare.

Periodontal Disease – Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and bleeding of the gums. If plaque is allowed to build up below the gum line and irritates the gums, then you have what is known as gum disease or periodontal disease. If not treated, the gum disease can advance and even cause tooth loss.

Smoking or chewing tobacco – Smokers often have more tartar on their teeth than non-smokers. This plus the toxic effects of the tobacco on the tissue itself makes smokers more likely to develop gum disease.

Hormones – Gum tissue contains hormone receptors. High levels of certain hormones can cause an increase of fluids in the gingiva(gum tissue), which makes the gums red, tender and swollen. The symptoms disappear when the hormone levels return to normal.

Vitamin K deficiency – Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting and a Vitamin K deficiency can lead to bleeding gums.

Autoimmune disorders – Autoimmune disorders are conditions in which the body’s immune system attacks its own cells causing tissue destruction. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Rheumatoid Arthritis are a few auto immune diseases which can lead to bleeding gums.

Leukemia – Leukemia is a cancer of bone marrow and blood cells, usually the white blood cells. People affected with Leukemia bleed easily and one of the symptoms is bleeding gums.

Over the counter medications – Some oral contraceptives, antidepressants, nasal sprays and anticoagulants may cause bleeding gums. Always talk to a doctor before purchasing any kind of over the counter medication.

More often than naught, bleeding gums are associated with some form of gum disease. If your gums bleed, you should go to a periodontist or a medical doctor immediately for advice, diagnosis and treatment. Do not attempt to self diagnose when it comes to bleeding gums or any other health problem. This article is for information purposes only and does not intend to render medical or dental advice.

Scott Wells’ interests include improving and maintaining dental health. He believes that the health of the mouth reflects the health of the body. For people wishing to improve dental health, Scott suggests the book, What You Should Know about Gum Disease – A Layman’s Guide to Fighting Gum Disease as his favorite resource. ISBN: 978-0-9814855-0-8. Available at : http://gingivitiskiller.com

Symptoms Of Lupus During Pregnancy

Lupus is a disease that in many cases is characterized by the distinctive rash that once was thought to resemble a wolf bite. That’s why the disease got the name lupus, the latin word for wolf. However, there are cases when the distinctive rash does not occur, and it was seen that there are not two cases of lupus exactly alike. Signs and symptoms can be permanent or temporary, mild or severe, or they can develop slowly or come suddenly.
Many of the persons with lupus have periods when the disease is getting worse- the so-called flares-, and after that, the disease improves, or even disappears for a while.

Usually, the most common signs and symptoms of lupus develop at intervals, rather than all at once.A skin problem often associated with the disease is a butterfly-shaped rash that develops across the cheeks and bridge of the nose, and this rash can be flat or raised and may be blotchy or completely red in the affected areas.

Some people develop a crusty, red, raised rash which is also called discoid rash on the face, neck, chest or scalp, is usually thick and scaly, may last for days or years and often leaves hypopigmented or hyperpigmented scars. There are other people that develop skin lesions which look at first like small pimples and can turn scaly and itchy and others have large, flat, itchy lesions with clear centers.
A lot of types of glomerulonephritis can appear because of lupus. Glomerulonephritis is a condition that affects the kidneys’ ability to filter toxins, leading to kidney failure. In many cases kidney damage can appear without any warning signs or symptoms, but some of those with kidney problems may develop frothy or tea-colored urine, swelling in their ankles or lower legs, or high blood pressure.Arthritis is another sign of lupus. A lot of patients with lupus can develop joint pain, stiffness and swelling, mainly in their fingers, hands, wrists and knees. Lupus-associated arthritis usually isn’t deforming, comes and goes quickly, and the pain can be severe during a flare.Lupus patients are very sensitive to sunlight, they develop rashes on sun-exposed skin. It was seen that lupus can cause also brain or central nervous system problems, like headaches, seizures, vision problems, dizziness, behavior changes or stroke.Lupus can also cause lung problems, like pleurisy, which is an inflammation of the chest cavity lining that can produce sharp stabbing chest pain, and also heart problems, mucosal ulcers, and blood vessels disorders.

There are also other signs and symptoms that can appear and are not specific to lupus.
Fatigue, which is an ongoing, extreme exhaustion that’s usually not relieved by rest can appear, also there can show up an unexplained fever, Raynaud’s phenomenon- a condition in which your fingers, toes, nose and ears turn pale and numb when exposed to cold temperatures-, digestive problems- like abdominal pain, weight loss nausea and vomiting-, hair loss, depression and swelling.

So if you want to find more about Lupus or more details about systemic lupus please follow this link http://www.lupus-guide.com


Cutaneous Lupus Treatment Pregnancy

At some time in most people’s lives a rash can develop. These can be caused by many different things such as allergies to certain foods, chemicals or metals, heat, insect bites or reactions to certain medications. People may resort to the use of an over the counter topical cream containing steroids for rashes, if the problem persists for a number of days. These may do the trick and work in most cases, although some people will have to seek medical assistance there is no response.

Certain rashes occur due to infections or illnesses such as shingles, rubella or measles. These will disappear after appropriate medication is taken for the particular condition. Skin problems that occur as a reaction to medications will normally disappear soon after it is changed or discontinued.

Allergic reactions to certain foods may be more difficult to diagnose, as the patient will have to undergo a number of tests to determine which foods they are allergic to. Some rashes associated with the general term eczema can be treated by using both a moisturizer as well as cortisone cream. However, there can be stubborn cases as well as severe ones that do not easily respond.

In many cases, depending on the diagnosis, use of a topical corticosteroid cream is helpful. Butt it is essential to read the instructions on the label, as prolonged use of topical steroids for rashes can cause problems.

There are many products that contain fragrances or dyes, that can irritate the skin or cause allergic reactions, and over the counter corticosteroids can help control the itching, swelling, and redness. Corticosteroids should not be used on a small child without speaking to a physician. The skin is the largest organ in the human body and absorbs everything that is rubbed into it and prolonged use of corticosteroids can cause liver, heart, lung and kidney problems.

Use of oral steroids such as prednisone can actually cause skin problems, including acne on the face, chest and back. With prolonged steroid use, the skin can become thin and bruise easily, while others develop stretch marks and thinning hair, or women may grow facial hair. They are used in certain contexts to treat delayed puberty, certain types of impotence, and body-wasting in AIDS patients. Illegally they are used in the sports world to build muscle.

Steroids should be used with caution, and never for longer than recommended on the label. They can be beneficial in most cases if appropriately used. When stopping the use of oral steroids one needs to taper off them according to the doctor’s instructions.


Signs Of Lupus In Teenagers

Before we proceed to miscarriage signs, let’s understand the causes of miscarriage. Miscarriage usually happens in the first trimester (12 weeks) of pregnancy with more than 90% of miscarriages happen within the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. It affects 10% to 20% of all confirmed pregnancies. Though most people believe it is a natural causes, experts have identified several known causes of miscarriage. They are:

1. Genetic factors and hormonal imbalances which affects the quality of the chromosomes, or the quality of the egg
2. The age of the mother-to-be (those who are over 35 have high tendencies)
3. Dependency on certain drugs or treatment such as dependency on insulin by diabetic patient.
4. Certain infections like Chlamydia or certain viruses
5. Systematic disorders, for instance lupus
6. The kind of lifestyles such as the level of alcohol, drugs or smoking consumption taken constantly.

So how do you know that you are having a miscarriage? Let’s identify the well-known miscarriage signs.

1. Having an abnormal vaginal bleeding just like a heavy period, this usually happen within the 6 weeks of pregnancy.
2. Having a cramp pelvic and back pain which increases from a mild pain to a severe pain as well as bleeding. The bleeding of fragment of tissue may occur as well. Normally the pain is worse than your usual menstrual period pain. This situation usually happens between 6 to 12 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Having an open cervix as well as bleeding and pain just like during the labor – this usually happen after the first trimester.

A sudden stop of pregnancy symptoms like nausea or morning sickness may not be the best indicator of miscarriage. This is because some mother-to-be will have these symptoms gradually disappear when they proceed into the second trimester.

If you have any of the above mentioned of miscarriages signs, the very first action you have to do is to consult your doctor. The doctor will perform some test like pelvic examination, blood test to determine HCG levels and the ultrasound test. From these test, a confirmation can be made.

Miscarriage leads to depression and grief. Spend more time with close friends and family members who care about you and give moral support to you. Always think positive and there is always be joy during pregnancy. There is nothing wrong if you want to cry as much as you want. That will help you to release such a big emotional burden out of you. Last but not least, always pray to strengthen your emotion, to be given a healthy body and no more miscarriage signs in the future.


Lupus Causes Diastolic Dysfunction

Preeclampsia is also called pregnancy-induced hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, or acute hypertensive disease of pregnancy. Preeclampsia acts as a disorder that occurs during pregnancy, which is related to pregnancy-induced hypertension. Characterized by high blood pressure and the presence of protein in the urine, preeclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of pregnancy. Sometimes referred to as pregnancy toxemia, preeclampsia can range from mild to severe. Without proper care and management, preeclampsia can cause a number of serious health complications, including preterm labor, seizures, and even death.
The hypertension component of Preeclampsia is present when the systolic blood pressure is greater than 140 mm Hg or the diastolic blood pressure is greater than 90 mm Hg in a woman known to be normotensive prior to pregnancy. The diagnosis requires 2 such abnormal blood pressure measurements recorded at least 6 hours apart.

Causes of Preeclampsia
The precise cause of Preeclampsia is unknown. But there are some causes which will increase the risk of suffering Preeclampsia. These causes include:
1, Having chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before becoming pregnant)

2, Having diabetes, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus (SLE), or scleroderma

3, Having developed high blood pressure or preeclampsia during a previous pregnancy (especially if these conditions occurred early in the pregnancy).

4, Being obese prior to pregnancy

5, Being pregnant under the age of 20 or over the age of 40

6, Being pregnant with more than one baby

7, Insufficient blood flow to the uterus

8, Damage to the blood vessels

9, A problem with the immune system

10,Poor diet
People who are at the risk of Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia occurs in 5% to 8% of all pregnancies in the United States. Though any pregnant women can develop preeclampsia, the vast majority of sufferers are women experiencing their first pregnancies.
Other risk factors area also known to increase your chances of developing the condition, including:
1, having a personal history of preeclampsia (in a previous pregnancy)

2, having a family history of preeclampsia (mother or sister developed it)

3, being obese

4, being teenager or a women over the age of 40

5, having a history of high blood pressure

6, experiencing a multiple pregnancy

7, suffering from an autoimmune disorder (such as Lupus or Multiple Sclerosis)
How to recognize Preeclampsia
The most common symptoms of preeclampsia are:
1, High blood pressure

2, Excessive swelling in hands, face and other parts of your body

3, Abdominal pain

4, Large amounts of protein in your urine

5, Small amounts of urine

6, Blood in your urine

7, Severe headaches

8, Vomiting blood

9, Dizziness

10 Fever

11 Double vision

12 Blurred vision

13 Rapid weight gain (more than 2 pounds per week)

14 Nausea and vomiting

How Preeclampsia can affect you and your baby
There are vast majority of preeclampsia sufferers who experienced only mild symptoms, but some pregnant women can develop severe preeclampsia. When severe, preeclampsia can create a number of health complications for mom:
1, increased risk of stroke (due to high blood pressure)

2, kidney and liver dysfunction

3, eclampsia (a condition which causes the development of seizures)

4, HELLP syndrome (the most severe form or preeclampsia)
Preeclampsia, if left untreated, it can lead to abruptio placenta, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral vascular accident, acute renal failure, and intrauterine growth restrictions for the fetus.
1, Intrauterine Growth Restriction

Due to high blood pressure levels and narrow uterine arteries, blood flow to your placenta can become restricted. This means that your baby will receive less oxygen and nutrients while in the womb. As a result, your baby may not develop properly or could be born with a low birthweight.
2, Acidosis

If your baby does not receive enough oxygen from the placenta, he will begin extracting oxygen from fuel stores in his body. This produces a toxic byproduct known as lactic acid. If this lactic acid builds up to high levels, it can result in acidosis, which can render your baby unconscious.
3, Preterm Birth

The biggest complication of Preeclampsia is preterm birth. Because preeclampsia can become dangerous for both mother and baby, it is sometimes necessary to deliver baby before 36 weeks. This can result in possible developmental problems and even fetal death.

Treatment for Preeclampsia
1, Allow frequent monitoring of both you and your baby by your doctor. When a woman has been diagnosed with preeclampsia, it’s very important to monitor the situation closely. Monitoring includes frequent ultrasounds, biophysical profiles, non-stress tests, blood pressure checks, weigh-ins for the mom and checking the amount of protein present in the mom’s urine.
2, Go on bed rest, either at home or in the hospital, if it’s too early to deliver the baby. For mild cases of preeclampsia, bed rest at home can be indicated. Bed rest helps increase blood flow to the baby and helps lower the mom’s blood pressure. In cases of severe preeclampsia, bed rest at the hospital is likely. Being at the hospital can allow for closer monitoring of both the mom and the baby.
3, Take medications prior to delivery to help with preeclampsia. Corticosteroids can help mature the baby’s lungs in case early delivery occurs. Taking drugs, such as hydralazine, can help lower the mom’s blood pressure and prevent preeclampsia from progressing. Your personal doctor will know which medications are best for you and your baby.
4, Deliver the baby. Delivery is the only real cure for preeclampsia. If the baby is at or near full term and a woman is diagnosed with preeclampsia, labor may be immediately induced or a caesarean section scheduled. If it’s too early to deliver the baby, doctors may try to hold off delivery using the other treatments described in this article until delivery is absolutely necessitated.
5, Use the drug magnesium sulfate during labor and delivery. For women with preeclampsia, magnesium sulfate can help prevent seizures in the mom during delivery and help increase blood flow to the baby and the placenta. IVs are often used to administer magnesium sulfate to the mom during delivery.
Tips:

Depending on the disease severity, the management varies. There have been several nonpharmacological therapies shown to be helpful in the prevention or, at the least, the progression of preeclampsia. “Eight milligrams of baby aspirin can be of some benefit to the at-risk mother as well as 2 grams of calcium daily,” says Atlas. Women should avoid taking vitamin E while pregnant because of the higher risk of developing preeclampsia, Atlas adds.