Positive Lupus Anticoagulant Antibody

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role in treating all kinds of disease and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Antinuclear antibody is defined as specific class of auto antibodies that have the ability to attack structures in the nucleus of cells instead of performing the normal antibody function. It can be detected through blood sample withdrawn from the patient vein.

2. Causes
a) Infection and inflammation
Infection and inflammation caused by bacteria or virus speeding up the body immune system function, but in some cases, bacteria and virus induce the immune system to produce antibodies which directed against the tissues of the body including antinuclear antibody. b) Medication
i) Phenytoin
Pheytoin may increase the risk of production of antinuclear antibody, leading to increasing the risk of malformations and birth defects.
ii) Antibotics
Long term uses of antibody may increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody as the medication causes abnormal reaction to the immune system.
iii) Methyldopa
The medication is used to dilate blood vessels for treating high blood pressure, but long term use of this type of medication may decrease the risk of immune disorder in production of antinuclear antibody.
c) Aging
As we age, the levels of antinuclear antibody increases and in some older adults (5% to 40%) may have mildly elevated levels caused by weakening immune function.
d) Diseases
Some diseases such as lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may also increase the rick of the production of antinuclear antibody.

3. How antinuclear antibody effects infertility
Under normal conditions, when a woman becomes pregnant, the white blood cells in her uterus produce protective, blocking antibodies. In case of antinuclear antibody, the white blood cells recognize the fetus as a foreign invasion and attack it, leading to miscarriage.

4. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants,it is a purified preparation derived from animal tissue. It helps to increase the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss.
b) Aspirin
Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory and blood thinner agent, it helps to increase the blood circulating to the reproductive organs, thereby reducing the risk of antinuclear antibody attacking the fetus or the women reproductive tissues. It is recommendation to take 80 mg per day, which is equivalent to a baby aspirin. if necessary.

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Positive Lupus Anticoagulant Disease

An FDA panel has unanimously approved a new type of blood-thinning medication, Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate) to help prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an irregular heartbeat in which the heart’s two small upper chambers (the atria) quiver instead of beating strongly. As a result, blood isn’t pumped completely out of them, and the trapped blood may pool and clot.

Atrial fibrillation is dangerous because of the risk that a clot may leave the heart and travel to the brain, resulting in a stroke. About 15% of strokes are a result of atrial fibrillation. AF can also lead to heart failure. The American Heart Association recommends aggressive treatment of this abnormal heart rhythm disorder, which affects about 2.2 million Americans – 3 to 5 percent of people over 65.

AF symptoms include dizziness or light-headedness, shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, heart palpitations, a racing heart and chest pains, although some people have no obvious symptoms. The best way to confirm if you have AF is to have an electrocardiogram to measure your heart’s electrical activity. Atrial fibrillation can be caused by a heart attack, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, high blood pressure or other medical problems. Heavy alcohol use, smoking, high consumption of caffeine, and use of illegal stimulants like cocaine and some prescription drugs (including decongestants and asthma medications) can also lead to atrial fibrillation.

Antiarrhythmics – prescription drugs to restore the heart’s natural rhythm – are the first line of defense against AF, along with lifestyle changes like quitting smoking, exercising, avoiding caffeine and alcohol and adopting a heart-healthy diet. Anticoagulant drugs, also known as blood thinner medications, are frequently prescribed to thin the blood and avoid the formation of clots. If AF symptoms fail to improve with prescription medications, electric shock to restore the heart’s regular beating pattern, radiofrequency ablation (cauterization of the problem area), surgery or insertion of an atrial pacemaker may be the next approach.

The newly approved Pradaxa is the first of a novel class of anticoagulant medication which inhibits an enzyme involved in blood clotting. In clinical trials, people with atrial fibrillation taking Pradaxa had fewer strokes than those taking the commonly prescribed anticoagulant medication warfarin. Warfarin is difficult to use as patients must be monitored with periodic blood tests, and the blood thinning medication interacts negatively with many other drugs and some foods. Germany’s Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Pradaxa is marketed in 75 mg and 110 mg capsules. Several American pharmaceutical companies are rushing to develop or get FDA approval for similar medications.


Positive Lupus Anticoagulant Treatment

French scientists have discovered that lupus patients have excess blood cells called platelets – small cell fragments that circulate in the blood, clumping together to form clots. These excess and overly-active platelets trigger production of inflammation-promoting proteins called interferons. Tests on mice given anti-platelet medication showed reduced lupus symptoms and increased life expectancy. The results suggest that anticoagulant drugs like clopidogrel (Plavix) could prevent lupus flare ups in people, and the scientists hope to start clinical trials on humans soon.

Lupus is a chronic, incurable auto-immune disease where the body’s immune system turns on itself, attacking its own tissue. The resulting inflammation causes pain and damages organs, particularly the kidneys. The most common symptoms include rashes, fever, hair loss, fatigue, aches and pains, and inflammation of the arteries and veins, tendons, brain, kidney and the membrane surrounding the lungs. Serious cases can be life threatening, with patients suffering kidney failure and out of control infections.

About one-and-a-half million Americans have lupus, which can be diagnosed with blood tests. It effects nine times more women than men, and usually strikes between the ages of 15 and 50. Its cause has not yet known, although researchers have identified genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. Some lupus patients have only mild and/or transitory flare ups which may go undiagnosed, while others are debilitated by a more aggressive form of the disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antimalarial medications are used to treat milder cases, while more serious attacks are treated with immune system suppressing medications and corticosteroids. There has not been a new medication for the treatment of lupus in 50 years. Current treatments are not 100 percent effective, and can have side effects.

The anti-clotting medication Plavix is the second highest-selling drug in the world (behind the cholesterol-lowering drug Lipitor). It makes platelets less “sticky” and likely to clump together to form clots, which can lodge in the heart, lungs or brain and cause a heart attack or stroke. Anti-clotting drugs, also called blood thinners, are widely prescribed as a preventative measure for persons who have experienced a heart attack or stroke, or who suffer from heart disease or poor blood circulation due to hardened and narrowed arteries (atherosclerosis).

Being able to treat lupus patients with blood thinner pills could dramatically improve their quality of life, according to the researchers. Plavix can be expensive in the US, where it’s patented until 2012, but cheaper generic Plavix is available in Europe and from Canada.

Lupus Anticoagulant

How Does Heparin Help Treat Recurrent Miscarriages?

Author: Mark Pelore

Question: How Does Heparin Help Treat Recurrent Miscarriages?

Heparin is an injectable blood thinner. Doctors sometimes prescribe heparin to women with antiphospholipid syndrome or other blood-clotting disorders that are linked to recurrent pregnancy loss.

Answer:

Recurrent miscarriages occur due to a number of causes. Some causes are more well understood than others, and in many cases, there is no known cause for recurrent miscarriages. One of the few medical factors doctors agree upon in recurrent miscarriages is thrombophilia disorders, or medical conditions in which the blood has an increased tendency to clot. The thrombophilia disorder most clearly tied to miscarriages is antiphospholipid syndrome.

In thrombophilia disorders, researchers believe that tiny clots get stuck in the developing placenta, blocking flow of nutrients to the baby and eventually causing miscarriage (or increasing risk of other pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia). It’s also been theorized that thrombophilia disorders might cause other problems with the placenta.

For women with diagnosed thrombophilia conditions and recurrent miscarriages, a common treatment is heparin — often alongside low-dose “baby” aspirin. Heparin injections thin the blood and decreases the tendency to form clots. Evidence suggests that heparin treatment during pregnancy reduces miscarriage rates for women with antiphospholipid syndrome and possibly benefits women with inherited thrombophilia disorders, such as Factor V Leiden mutations.

Using heparin during pregnancy is not without risk; the drug can have side effects in some people and may increase the risk of bone loss or tendency to hemorrhage. But for women with antiphospholipid syndrome, the benefits likely outweigh the risks.

Some experts had theorized that heparin might be beneficial for women with recurrent miscarriages and negative tests for antiphospholipid antibodies, postulating that unexplained recurrent miscarriages could be due to some unrecognized blood clotting disorder, but a 2010 study found that neither heparin nor low-dose aspirin improved birth rates for these women compared to placebo. Heparin treatment is usually recommended only in women with both a history of miscarriage and a confirmed diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome or an inherited thrombophilia disorder.

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Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/medicine-articles/how-does-heparin-help-treat-recurrent-miscarriages-3554306.html

About the Author

Mark Pelore is a doctor specialized in Infertility and Pregnancy, and is based in Beverly Hills, Carlifornia