History Of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

History of Robots – Joseph Letzelter

Author: josephletzelter

Czech writer Karel ?apek introduced the word “Robot” in his play “R.U.R” (Rossum’s Universal Robots) in 1921. “Robot” in Czech comes from the word “robota”, meaning “labor”. The earliest ideas that could be related to the robotics of today was in 350 B.C. by the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum. He created a mechanical bird he called ?The Pigeon.? The bird was propelled by steam.The idea of artificial people dates at least as far back as the ancient legend of Cadmus, who sowed dragon teeth that turned into soldiers; and the myth of Pygmalion, whose statue of Galatea came to life. In classical mythology, the malformed god of metalwork (Vulcan or Hephaestus) created mechanical servants, ranging from intelligent, golden handmaidens to more utilitarian three-legged tables that could move about under their own power. Jewish legend tells of the Golem, an clay statue animated by Kabbalistic magic.

The first recorded design of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci around the 1495. Da Vinci’s notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contained detailed drawings for a mechanical knight that was apparently able to sit up, wave its arms, and move its head and jaw. The design was likely based on his anatomical research recorded in the Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether or not he attempted to build the robot .

The first known working robot was created in the 1738 by Jacques de Vaucanson, who made an android that played the flute, as well as a mechanical duck that reportedly ate and defecated. E.T.A. Hoffmann’s 1817 short story “The Sandman” features a doll-like mechanical woman, and Edward S. Ellis’ 1865 “Steam Man of the Prairies” expresses the American attraction with industrialization. A wave of stories about humanoid automatons culminated with the “Electric Man” by Luis Senarens in 1885.

Once technology advanced to the point where people foresaw mechanical creatures as more than toys, literary responses to the concept of robots reflected fears that humans would be replaced by their own creations. Frankenstein (1818), sometimes called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with this theme. When Capek’s play RUR introduced the concept of an assembly line run by robots who try to build still more robots, the theme took on economic and philosophical overtones, further disseminated by the classic movie Metropolis (1927), and the popular Blade Runner (1982) and The Terminator (1984). With robots a actuality and intelligent robots a likely prospect, a better understanding of connections between robots and human is embodied in such modern films as Spielberg’s A.I. (movie) (2001) and Proyas’ I, Robot (2004).

Many consider the first robot in the modern sense to be a teleoperated boat, similar to a modern ROV, devised by Nikola Tesla and demonstrated at an 1898 exhibition in Madison Square Garden. Based on his patent 613,809 for “teleautomation”, Tesla hoped to develop the “wireless torpedo” into an automated weapon system for the US Navy. The first electronic autonomous robots were created by Grey Walter at Bristol University, England in 1948.

Contemporary uses of robots

Robots are being used today to do the tasks that are either too dirty, hazardous, hard, cyclic or tedious for humans. This usually takes the form of industrial robots used in industrialized lines. Other applications include toxic waste cleanup, space exploration, mining, search and rescue, and mine finding. Manufacturing remains the primary market where robots are utilized. In particular, articulated robots, similar in motion capability to the human arm, are the most widely used. Applications include welding, painting and machine loading. The automotive industry has taken full advantage of this new technology where robots have been programmed to replace human labor in many simple repetitive tasks. The wide acceptance of such technologies, however, was delayed by the availability of cheap labour and high capital necessities of robotics.

While robotic machinery has achieved a certain amount of maturity, the social impact of these robots is largely unknown. The field of social robots is now promising and investigates the relationship between robots and humans. A ludobot is an instance of a social robot dedicated to entertainment and companionship. In early 2000s domestic robots have entered the mainstream culture, with the success of Sony’s Aibo and several manufacturers releasing robotic vacuum cleaners. Japanese corporations are infamous for their successes in developing humanoid robots and their plans to use the technology not only in their manufacturing plants, but also in Japanese homes. There is much hope in Japan, that home care for an aging (and long-lived) population can be better achieved through robotics. Robots have also been explored as a form of High-tech Art. Recent military conflicts have seen extensive use of robots in ground and air-based investigation, bomb-disposal, and most recently, remote controlled combat by human operators. The US military recently made to order an updated and revised former bomb-disposal robot as a combat robot, having it armed with a machine gun, but it is also capable of holding an RPG or rocket launcher. Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles have also been extensively used in recent American wars, with them being used to survey insurgents and even target them with smart bombs.

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About the Author

Joseph Letzelter is an expert author, who is presently working on the site Joseph Letzelter. He has written many articles in various topics. For more information about Joseph Letzelter. Visit our site Joseph Letzelter. Contact him at circleyou.articles@gmail.com


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pictures

Joseph Letzelter – Reasons for giving employee awards

Author: josephletzelter

If you don’t yet have an Employee Award Recognition program at your company, you are missing out on a best way to increase productivity, boost morale, foster loyalty, and increase worker pride in the workplace which translates into higher profits and greater customer satisfaction.
The following list should provide the ammunition you require to implement a workplace awards recognition program:
1) Employees respond to getting recognition even more than financial rewards and pay increases. Since any increase in pay or salaries has hidden costs like higher taxes that can be a drag on the bottom line, a relatively inexpensive award plaque, trophy or medal provides far more bang for the buck. Giving employee awards is cheaper than rising salaries or benefits.
2) Healthy competition between employees will raise productivity as each employee strives to be a top performer and earn the recognition for his or her efforts. As employees compete for the coveted recognition award, productivity increases translate to superior profits for the company
3) Employees that know they are appreciated are extra loyal, which means lower turnover, higher employee retention, and less time and expense hiring and training new employees.
4) Employees recognized by their companies are more pleasant and joyful in the workplace, which spills over into customer satisfaction
5) An employee’s award ceremony creates an opportunity for the company to become more unified in a positive social setting. Your employee recognition program should be designed around this event, whether annual or semi-annual.
6) Attitudes are contagious – rewarding workers goes a long way toward happy employees that are more energetic and productive and affect others in the workplace positively.
7) Award recognition can change negative behaviors in the workplace. Reward employees for things like ‘outstanding employee’ and the recognition experience motivates those who do not get an award so that the entire company can get moving in the right direction as a team.
There are many original ways to give employee awards, and in almost all cases it is much cheaper than monetary compensation to produce a similar result. An employee recognition gift, which is very inexpensive, will increase employee retention and foster happier, more loyal employees that will raise productivity, profits and customer satisfaction.

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Joseph Letzelter is a Copywriter of Joseph Letzelter .he written many articles in various topics such as Joseph Letzelter . For more information visit: www.worldhouseinfo.com


Lupus Erythematosus

Joseph Letzelter’s Systemic Lupus Erythematosus General Features

Author: josephletzelter

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and dangerous disease with many symptoms. SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s own immune structure is directed against the body’s own tissues. The origin of SLE is not known. This disease is common to all ages, but is more common in young women. The fabrication of autoantibodies direct to immune complex formation. The immune complex deposition in many tissues direct to the manifestations of the disease. Immune complexes can be deposited in glomeruli, lungs, skin, mesothelium, synovium, and other places. Many SLE affected patients develop renal complications.

Generally normal healthy immune systems develop an antibodies that will help to fight and kill the bacteria as well as viruses that affect the body. In systemic lupus erythematosus, the body’s immune system malfunctions by attacking by itself. Rather than shielding the body from destructive foreign substances, the immune system produces autoantibodies plus sensitized cytotoxic T cells that injure the host’s own tissues. The immune system mistakes host tissues for foreign ones plus increase an inappropriate attack. These autoantibodies contribute to a multitude of destructive effects in the body.

Relative toward the immune system, the initial obvious abnormality of SLE is the hyperactivity of B lymphocytes. Nor intrinsic B lymphocyte abnormalities (a subject of current research) or else defects in assistant T lymphocytes (CD4 cells-that regulate B lymphocyte function) are probable contributors to the extreme activation of B lymphocytes. The hyperactivity of B lymphocytes consequences in the production of abnormal antibodies, the hallmark symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus. In SLE, abnormal B lymphocytes instinctively secrete improved amounts of abnormal antibodies that contribute negatively to a lacking immune system. The production of irregular autoantibodies could also react through a whole host of subcellular antigens. Autoantibodies cause harm by altering the job of target organs as well as tissues. They might also contribute to multi-systemic swelling.

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About the Author

Joseph Letzelter is an expert author, who is presently working on the site Joseph Letzelter. He has written many articles in various topics Joseph Letzelter. For more information about . Visit our site Joseph Letzelter Contact him at josephletzelterarticle@gmail.com.