Symptoms Of Lupus Disease On Men

WHAT IS PEYRONIE’S DISEASE?

Peyronie’s disease consists of hard, fibrous tissue, called plaques, developing within the penile shaft. The plaques are hard, thickened and stiff areas, actually a kind of internal scarring. In this fibroid tissue also calcium compounds can accumulate, making the plaques even harder.

The Peyronie’s disease is also called cavernositis, and also sometimes plastic induration. There is probably a chronic inflammation process that leads to this scarring.

The thickened area has less blood flow than normal penile tissue, and do not fill with blood and swell as the normal spongy areas in the inside of the penis. Therefore the penis swells more at the opposite side, and gets a curvature towards the side containing the plaques when erected.

If the plaques are found at several places, more complex deformations will develop. The abnormal bending, twisting or swelling within the penis, often also lead to painful erections.

Any man from the age of 18 and upwards can develop Peyronie’s disease. The average age of men suffering from Peyronie’s disease is 50.

 

THE SYMPTOMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONDITION

The three main characteristics of cavernositis are:

– One or more small hard lumps underneath the skin, or a continuous hard, stiff and thickened area.

– Abnormal bent or crooked penis when erect. All penises have some curvature, but by this disease, the penile bend increases, and one may get a very curved penis. The penis may be bent as a banana or in an angular fashion. The penile bending is most often up, but may be down, to the left side, to right or sloping.

-The bending is usually to the same side as that of the hard thickened area when the penis is erected.

-The hard areas in the erected penis may look like bumps, making the penis irregular.

– Sometimes the penis bends greatly enough to make sexual intercourse difficult, or impossible.

– Pain during erections caused by the pressure from the hard areas in the penis, or from the stretched skin at the opposite side of the penis.

– One may not notice the bend immediately, as it tends to develop over one to three months and later than the hardness and stiffness of the indurations.

– The plastic induration may progress and cause impotence. Sometimes the Peyroni’s disease will clear up by itself, but this may take several years.

 

THE CAUSES OF PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

The exact cause of the induration is unknown. It’s not a sign of an underlying serious condition, and it is not a sexually transmitted infection. It is possible that the disease can begin with an inflammation in the penile tissue. An inflammation may be caused by an allergic or auto-immune reaction. Although the Peyronie

Symptoms And Signs Of Lupus

People who do not practice safe sex, has an active sex life and has sex with multiple partners are at high risk of having sexually transmitted diseases or STD. One may not know that he or she is already infected until symptoms or signs come out in the open.  This is when a patient begins to have doubts on his or her health condition. Symptoms among men and women are different from each other. Women are more susceptible to have STDs than men.

Here are some common symptoms and signs of STD:

For women, they may experience itching, pain during sexual intercourse and when urinating, rashes, swelling, bump and lumps, smelly vaginal discharge and skin discoloration. On the other hand, men may feel pain in the testicular area, pain when urinating, blood discharge from the penis, bumps or blisters and itchiness.

Symptoms showing-up may vary depending on the disease. Some diseases may show signs as early as forty-eight hours after the sexual intercourse, others may take longer. However, these signs and symptoms may not apply to all types of STDs. Some STDs are asymptomatic diseases. This means that the disease do not show any signs or symptoms at all. This makes it difficult to detect if one has been infected with the disease. Such STDs are Chlamydia and gonorrhea.

The only way to have one’s doubts be checked is through a reliable and accurate STD or HIV testing. These tests help one detect if he or she is infected with STD. This could also mean that one diagnosed should start consulting a doctor and seek treatment. There are STDs that can be treated and there are few that are not. So, depending on the disease, the doctor should know what type of treatment should be given to the patient.

There are lots of methods that one can choose from when it comes to STD testing. If one wants to have fast results given to them, quick or rapid STD testing may be taken. This can give results in as quick as twenty minutes but still as accurate as possible. Other concerned organizations offer a more affordable STD testing for those who are having financial matters and think that testing is expensive. Another way is the confidential, private or anonymous STD testing. This is done for people who wants to keep their privacy while taking the test and obtaining the results. Confidentiality is important for people who are suspecting of having been infected with a disease because STDs are serious matters to deal with. This is aside from the fact that your health and life is at stake in the situation. There are several STD testing clinics that are specializing in helping those who have matters with STDs. They are now available in many states all over U.S.

Detecting the disease early can give the patient the right advice and guidance that he or she needs. The patient may also seek the help of a doctor for proper treatment and prompt medications if possible.


Lupus Disease Cures

Quantum healing.

This is a must read for any person who is dealing with illness or disease in a world where half of our seven Billion people are sick or dying daily.

A new book reveals a journey into the world of futuristic Quantum cure for all disease has been developed over the last 20 years by brilliant Doctors and Scientists using NASA space age technology to allow a Doctor to heal today with warp speed, delete disease with no pain and inexpensively.

This science is not new and has been vastly improved to a Sci-Fi level. In 1934, Doctor Royal Rife cured 16 out of 16 terminally ill with Cancer. We just have not heard about how this Medical Revolution is exploding world wide. http://www.healthcureforalldisease.com

Dave Archer wrote The Quantum cure over 3 years as he was a patient with this new technology suffering with multiple disease and finding no cure with Drugs or conventional Doctors.

Quantum healing allows a practitioner to scan a patients Body, Mind and Spirit within 90 seconds on a cellular level, print out the list of defects and begin 5 minute cycles of healing a person in each area of illness or disease directly. This allows a body to heal with biofeedback at computer age lightening speeds.

The Quantum Cure is a natural alternative available to any patient world wide and the book provides options for a reader to find a local Doctor with ease and begin a Quantum Leap in recovery. http://www.healthcureforalldisease.com

Here is a list of illness or disease that Quantum can heal with remarkable speed because it is the most powerful force in the universe and works on Mind Body and Spirit on a cellular level, instantly. Some will be deleted in a 1 hour session whereas Cancer may take a dozen sessions a€¦

Abscess
Acid Reflux
Acidosis
Acne
Addictions
Addison’s Disease
Adrenal Disorders
Adrenoleukodystrophy
(ALD)
Age Spots
Aging
AIDS
Allergies
Alopecia (Baldness)
ALS
Alzheimer’s Disease
Amenorrhea
Anaphylaxis
Anemia
Anger
Anxiety
Arteriosclerosis
Arthritis
Asthma
Athletes Foot
Attention Deficit Disorder
Autism
Back Pain
Balance Problems
Blackheads Acne
Bladder Cancer
Bladder Problems
Blisters
Body Odor & Bad Breath
Bone Cancer
Bone Spurs
Bowel Problems
Brain Cancer
Brain Injury
Breast Cancer
Breast Problems
Bronchitis
Bruising
Bursitis
Cancer
Cancer of Cervix
Candida – Candidacies
Cardiovascular Disease
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Celiac Disease
Cellulite
Cellulitis
Chemotherapy Side-effects
Chlamydia
Cholesterol Problems
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic Pulmonary Disease
Circulatory Problems
Cold Sores
Colic
Colon Cancer
Common Cold
Constipation
Cough
Cohn’s Disease
Cystic Acne
Cystic Fibrosis
Cysts
Dandruff
Depression
Dermatitis
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Diabetes
Diarrhea
Diverticulitis
Diverticulosis
Drug Addiction
Dry Skin
Ear Problems
Eczema
Edema
Emphysema
Endocrine Disorders
Endometriosis
Energy Problems
Environmental Toxicity
Epilepsy
Esophagus Cancer
Eye Pain
Eye Problems
Eyes (Bags under)
Eyes (Bloodshot)
Eyes (Dry)
Eyes (Itchy)
Eyes (Mucus)
Eyes (Tired)
Eyestrain
Face Pain
Facial Paralysis
Fatigue
Fatty / Enlarged Liver

Fever
Fever Blisters
Fibromyalgia
Flu
Folliculitis
Folliculitis Alopecia
Folliculitis Decalvans
Capillitii
Food allergy
Food Poisoning
Frozen Shoulder
Fungal Infection
Fungal Skin Infections
Gall bladder Cancer
Gallstones
Gangrene
GERD – Gastro-Esophageal
Reflux
Glaucoma
Gout
Gum Problems
Gynecological Problems
Hair Disorders/Loss
Hay Fever
Headache
Hearing Loss
Heart Attack
Heart Disease
Heartburn
Hemorrhoids
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hernia
Herpes
Hiatal Hernia
Hiccups
High Liver Enzymes
HIV
Hodgkin’s disease
Hormonal Acne
Hormone Imbalance
Hot Flashes
Huntington’s Disease
Hyperactivity
Hypertension
Hyperthyroidism
Hypoglycemia
Hypothyroidism
Immune Dysfunction
Impetigo
Impotence
Infertility
Inflammation
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Injured Muscles
Insomnia
Intertrigo
Intrahepatic Stones
Iridocyclitis
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Jaundice
Jet Lag
Kidney Cancer
Kidney Problems
Kidney Stones
Knee Pain
Lactose Intolerance
Leaky Gut Syndrome
Learning Disorders
Leg Cramps
Leg Ulcers
Leukemia
Leucorrhea
Lichen Planus
Lichen Sclerosis
Liver & Gallbladder Problems
Liver Cancer
Liver Stones
Low Blood Pressure
Low Blood Sugar
Lung Cancer
Lung Disease
Lupus
Lyme Disease
Macular Degeneration
Malabsorption Syndrome
Malnutrition
Mastitis
Mastocytosis
Melanoma Cancer
Memory Problems
Menopause Problems
Menstruation Problems
Migraine
Mineral Deficiency
Moles
Mood Swings
Mouth Cancer
Multiple Chemical
Sensitivity

Multiple Sclerosis
Muscle Pain
Muscle Weakness
Myocardial Infarction
Nail Problems
Narcolepsy
Nausea
Neck Problems
Nerve Damage
Nervousness
Neuropathy
Nodular or Severe Cystic Acne
Non-Hodkins Lymphoma
Nosebleed
Obesity
Oily Skin
Osteoporosis
Ovarian Cancer
Overweight
Pain
Pancreas Cancer
Pancreas Problems
Panic Disorder
Parasites
Parasites Intestinal
Parkinson’s Disease
Personality Disorder
Phemhigus
Phobias
Pilonidal Disease
Pimples (Acne)
Pityriasis Rosea
PMS
Pneumonia
Polyps
Post-polio Syndrome
Pregnancy Problems
Primary Sclerosing
Cholangitis
Prostate Cancer
Prostate Problems
Psoriasis
Psoriasis
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Radiation Sickness
Respiratory Ailments
Rheumatism
Rickets
Rosacea
Sarcoma Cancer
Schizophrenia
Sciatica
Scleroderma
Scoliosis
Senility
Sexual Dysfunction
Sexual Problems
Shoulder Pain
Sinus Problems
Skin Problems
Skin Rash
Sleep Disorders
Snakebite
Snoring
Spider Bite
Spinal Disorders
Sports Injuries
Stomach Cancer
Stomach Problems
Stroke
Testical Cancer
Thyroid Cancer
Thyroid Problems
Thyroiditis
Tinea
Tinea Capitis
Tinnitus
Tongue Cancer
Tooth Decay
Toxemia
Toxicity
Tuberculosis
Tumors
Ulcer
Ulcerative Colitis/Colitis
Underweight
Urinary Tract Infections
Urination Problems
Vaginal Cancer
Vaginitis
Varicose Veins
Vertigo
Vision Problems
Vitamin Deficiency
Vomiting
Vulvitis
Warts
Whiteheads Acne
Worms
Wrinkled Skin – Wrinkles
Yeast Infection


Early Stages Of Lupus Nephritis

Okay, so you wake up in the morning and you feel stiff. You think, “I sure feel my age.” Even though you may not have arthritis yet, your body sure is giving you some signs of inflammation….swelling up inside.

You also might start to notice things like your blood sugars suddenly are elevated, or your cholesterol levels have changed for the worse.

Even those extra pounds you might have gained is caused by inflammation! All of the above are just systems which are setting the stage for you to have serious inflammatory diseases.

Years ago the word “inflammation” was only associated with Arthritis. Today inflammation is the leading problem and cause of many different types of heart disease, Alzheimer’s, and some cancers.

Normally, inflammation helps fight infections and initiates the healing process after an injury. But it doesn’t always routinely fade away.

Sometimes, inflammation festers in one part of the body. Perhaps related to allergies or an injured knee, then spreads out and eventually leads to a cluster of related disorders: the inflammation syndrome.

Many people across the United States and the world, suffer from pain. I bet you did no know that the feelings of pain can be caused from just inflammation!

I never thought about it before until I started this research.

This is what happens. When inflammation occurs, chemicals from your own body’s white blood cells get released into your blood or the area of your body that is affected….This is the natural process that your body does to protect itself from foreign substances.

When your body releases the chemicals, this will then increase the blood flow to the area of injury or infection. You may then see some redness or feel a warmth around the area.

The pain that you feel is caused because some of the chemicals cause a leak of fluid into the tissues, resulting in swelling. This protective process may stimulate nerves and cause your pain.

Irritation, swelling of the joints, is caused when the increased number of cells and inflammatory substances within the joint cause the symptoms.

Did you know that inflammation can affect also your internal organs? Sure can.

The types of symptoms depend on which organs are being affected.

#1:

Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) may cause shortness of breath or fluid retention.

#2:

Inflammation of the small tubes that transport air to the lungs may cause an asthma attack.

#3:

Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis) may cause high blood pressure or kidney failure.

#4:

Inflammation of the large intestine (colitis) may cause cramps and diarrhea.

This is why I believe in natural products to take the swelling down within my body. We can not see what goes on inside our bodies…

We only know something is wrong when we feel the pain.


Lupus Pathogenesis Review

Dry eye syndrome, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is an eye disease in which the amount, or quality, of tear production is decreased, or the evaporation of tear film is increased. The translation of  “keratoconjunctivitis sicca” from Latin is “dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva”.

Symptoms

The most frequent clinical findings of dry eye can be meibomitis, telangiectasis, blepharitis, superficial punctate keratopathy, and hyperemia. Commonly, we describe typical symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis as dryness, burning[3] and a sandy or gritty eye irritation that becomes worse as the day progresses.[1] Symptoms may also be described as itchy,[3] scratchy,[4] stingy[3] or tired[3] eyes. Other symptoms are pain,[5] redness,[5] a pulling sensation,[3] and pressure behind the eye[3]. Many patients report a feeling that something,[3] such as a speck of dirt,[5] is in the eye. The resultant damage to the eye’s corneal surface increases discomfort and sensitivity to bright light.[3] Both eyes usually are affected.[6] There may also be a stringy discharge from the eyes.[5] Although it may seem counterintuitive, dry eye can induce the eyes to water.[5] This watering occurs because the eyes are irritated.[5] One may experience excessive tearing in the same way as one would if something became lodged in the eye.[5] These watery reflex tears will not reduce the dry eye symptoms[5] because this type of tear is the watery type that are produced in response to injury, irritation, or emotion.[5] They do not have the lubricating and wound healing qualities necessary to prevent and heal dry eye.[5]

In those suffering from dry eye, blinking can have a negative impact as well as a positive. On the one hand, blinking causes the eyelid to induce shear forces on the cornea as the lid moves across the corneal surface. This force can be high and lead to abrasion of the corneal surface if the normal, protective tear film is not in place to absorb the shear forces. On the other hand, because in the normal eye blinking coats the corneal surface with tears,[5] symptoms can be worsened by activities in which the rate of blinking is reduced due to prolonged use of the eyes[3]. These activities include prolonged reading,[1] computer usage,[1][3][5] driving,[3] or watching television[3][5]. The severity of symptoms increase in windy,[5] dusty[3][5] or smoky (including cigarette smoke[5]) areas,[1][3] in dry environments[1][3], high altitudes including airplanes,[6] on days with low humidity,[3] and in areas where an air conditioner[5] (especially in a car[3]), fan,[3] heater,[3] or even a hair dryer[5] is being used. The severity of symptoms are reduced during cool, rainy, or foggy weather and in humid places, such as in the shower.[3]

Many people experiencing dry eyes exhibit mild irritation with no long-term effects.[5] However, if the condition progresses, complications may result that cause eye damage,[5] resulting in impaired vision or infrequently in the loss of vision[3,5].

Symptom assessment is a key component of dry eye diagnosis, and objective measurements often are unable to fully describe the disease. Several questionnaires have been developed to determine a score that would allow for dry eye diagnosis. The McMonnies & Ho dry eye questionnaire is frequently used in clinical studies of dry eyes. A version of  the questionnaire can be accessed at: http://www.dipolarhosting.net/agingeye/dryeye.asp.

Epidemiology and Etiology

Over time the condition of dry eye can lead to tiny abrasions on the surface of the eyes.[4] In advanced cases of dry eye, the epithelium undergoes pathologic changes, such as squamous metaplasia and loss of goblet cells.[1] Severe cases can also result in thickening of the corneal surface,[3] corneal erosion,[1] punctate keratopathy,[1] epithelial defects,[1] corneal ulceration (sterile and infected),[1] corneal neovascularization,[1] corneal scarring,[1][3] corneal thinning,[1] and even corneal perforation[1].

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is relatively common within the United States, especially so in older patients.[1] Specifically, the persons most likely to be affected by dry eyes are those aged 40 or older.[6]

While persons with autoimmune diseases have a high likelihood of having dry eyes, most persons with dry eyes do not have an autoimmune disease.[6] Instances of SjA¶gren syndrome and keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with it are present much more commonly in women, with a ratio of 9:1.[1] In addition, milder forms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca also are more common in women.[1] This is partly because hormonal changes,[6] such as those that occur in pregnancy, menstruation, and menopause,[6] can decrease tear production.[5] Dry eye is commom in areas of the world where malnutrition is common and the diet is deficient in vitamin A.[23] There are no racial correlates for this disease.[1]

An abnormality of any one of the three layers of tears produces an unstable or inadequate tear film composition, resulting in symptoms of keratitis sicca.[1] To help keep your eyes feeling comfortable and the optical components of your corneal surface in optimal condition, a normal, thin film of tears coats your eyes. Three main layers make up this tear film:

The innermost layer is the thinnest and is composed of mucin (or mucus). This thin layer of mucus is produced by the cells in the conjunctiva (the clear skin that lines the eye). The mucus has multiple functions and helps the overlying watery layer to spread evenly over the eye.

The middle layer is acqueous and is thickest. This layer is essentially a very dilute saltwater solution containing many important proteins for protection and healing. The lacrimal glands under the upper lids and the accessory tear glands produce this watery layer. This layer’s function is to keep the eye moist and comfortable, flush out any dust, debris, or foreign objects that may enter into the eye, and provide wound healing and protection. Defects of the aqueous layer are the most common cause of dry eye syndrome.

The most superficial layer of the tear film is a very thin layer of lipids (fats or oils). These lipids contain omega-3 fatty acids and are produced by the meibomian glands and the glands of Zeis (oil glands in the eyelids). The main function of this lipid layer is to help decrease evaporation of the watery layer beneath it.

 

Deficient tear production

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is usually due to inadequate tear production.[1][3] The aqueous tear layer is affected, resulting in aqueous tear deficiency (ATD) or lacrimal hyposecretion.[1] The lacrimal gland does not produce sufficient tears to keep the entire conjunctiva and cornea covered by a complete layer.[3] This usually occurs in people who are otherwise healthy. Increased age is associated with decreased tearing.[1] This is the most common type found in postmenopausal women.[3][7]

Causes include idiopathic, congenital alacrima, xerophthalmia, lacrimal gland ablation, and sensory denervation.[1] In rare cases, it may be a symptom of collagen vascular diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis[3], Wegener’s granulomatosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.[1] SjA¶gren’s syndrome[3] and autoimmune diseases associated with SjA¶gren’s syndrome are also conditions associated with aqueous tear deficiency.[1] Drugs such as isotretinoin,[3] sedatives,[3][6] diuretics,[3] tricyclic antidepressants,[6] antihypertensives,[3] oral contraceptives,[1][3] antihistamines,[1][3][5] nasal decongestants,[5] beta-blockers,[1] phenothiazines,[1] atropine,[1], and pain relieving opiates such as morphine[6] can cause or worsen this condition. Infiltration of the lacrimal glands by sarcoidosis or tumors, or postradiation fibrosis of the lacrimal glands can also cause this condition.[1]

Abnormal tear composition

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca can also be caused by abnormal tear composition resulting in rapid evaporation[3] or premature destruction of the tears.[1] When caused by rapid evaporation, it is termed evaporative dry eyes.[3] In this, although the tear gland produces a sufficient amount of tears, the rate of evaporation of the tears is too rapid.[3] There is a loss of water from the tears that results in tears that are too “salty” or hypertonic. As a result, the entire conjunctiva and cornea cannot be kept covered with a complete layer of tears during certain activities or in certain environments.[3] Dry-eye disease is accompanied by an increase in the proinflammatory forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha and mature IL-1 beta) and a decrease in the biologically inactive precursor IL-1 beta in tear fluid. Increased protease activity on the ocular surface may be one mechanism by which precursor IL-1 beta is cleaved to the mature, biologically active form. The conjunctival epithelium appears to be one source of the increased concentration of IL-1 in the tear fluid of patients with dry-eye disease. These results suggest that IL-1 may play a key role in the pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Other identified factors in the tear film that may be altered in dry eye include epidermal growth factor (EGF), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-8, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2, and numerous previously undetected tear components, such as angiogenin (ANG), VEGF, and the CXC and CC chemokines IFN-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10, growth-related oncogene (GRO), epithelial neutrophil-activating protein (ENA)-78, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha.

One reason aging is associated with dry eye is because tear production decreases with age.[5] Dry eye  may also be caused by thermal or chemical burns, or (in epidemic cases) by adenoviruses. Diabetics are at increased risk for the disease.[8][9]

An eye injury or other problem with the eyes or eyelids, such as bulging eyes or a drooping eyelid can cause keratoconjunctivitis sicca.[4] Disorders of the eyelid can impair the complex blinking motion required to spread tears.[6]

About half of all people who wear contact lenses complain of dry eyes.[5] This is because soft contact lenses, which float on the tear film that covers the cornea, absorb liquid from the tears.[5] Dry eye also occurs or becomes worse after LASIK and other refractive surgeries, in which the corneal nerves are cut during the creation of a corneal flap.[5] The corneal nerves stimulate tear secretion.[5] Dry eyes caused by these procedures often, but not always, resolve after several months.[6] Persons who are thinking about refractive surgery should consider this possible side-effect.[5]

Abnormalities of the lipid tear layer caused by blepharitis and rosacea, and abnormalities of the mucin tear layer caused by vitamin A deficiency, trachoma, diphtheric keratoconjunctivitis, mucocutaneous disorders and certain topical medications are causes of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.[1]

Persons with keratoconjunctivitis sicca have elevated levels of tear nerve growth factor (NGF).[1] It is possible that this ocular surface NGF plays an important role in ocular surface inflammation associated with dry eyes.[1]

Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder, affecting the face and chest, and develops mostly in the 3rd to 6th decades of life. It is characterized by erythema, telangiectasias, and recurrent flushings. During the time of this chronic inflammation, skin typically develops papules, pustules, and swelling. Ocular involvement occurs in 3 to 58% of patients with skin changes. Common ocular signs include blepharoconjunctivitis, meibomitis, and dry eyes. Rosacea keratitis, when present, however, has a poor prognosis and may lead to blindness. Among skin diseases, Helicobacter pylori infection has sometimes been related with rosacea. A higher prevalence of indigestion and Helicobacter pylori infection in rosacea patients than in healthy controls has been reported in limited studies. However, no causal relation has been identified. On the other hand, oral treatment with metronidazole is beneficial in all of three mentioned manifestations of rosacea (skin, eye, indigestion). More research is required to explore this possible link.

 

Diagnosis

Dry eyes can usually be diagnosed by the symptoms alone.[3] Tests can determine both the quantity and the quality of the tears.[6] A slit lamp examination can be performed to diagnose dry eye and to document any damage to the corneal surface.[1][3]

A Schirmer’s test is used to measure the amount of moisture bathing the eye.[3] This test is useful for determining the severity of the condition.[5] A five-minute Schirmer’s test with and without anesthesia using a Whatman #41 filter paper 5 mm wide by 35 mm long is performed.[1] For this test, wetting under 5 mm with or without anesthesia is considered diagnostic for dry eyes.[1]

If the results for the Schirmer’s test are abnormal, a Schirmer II test can be performed to measure reflex secretion.[1] In this test, the nasal mucosa is irritated with a cotton-tipped applicator, after which tear production is measured with a Whatman #41 filter paper.[1] For this test, wetting under 15 mm after five minutes is considered abnormal.[1]

Tear breakup time (TBUT) tests measures the time it takes for tears to break up in the eye.[5] The tear breakup time is determined after placing a drop of fluorescein in the cul-de-sac (under the corner of the lower eyelid).[1]

A tear protein analysis test measures the lysozyme contained within tears.[1] In tears, lysozyme is part of the superficial immune system and accounts for more than 20 percent of total protein content.[1] A lactoferrin (an anti-microbial) analysis test provides good correlation with other tests.[1]

The presence of recently described molecules, the diadenosine polyphosphates, naturally occurring in tears, are abnormally high in different states of ocular dryness. One molecule, Ap4A, which is important in ocular healing (Mediero et al, 2006), can be quantified biochemically simply by acquiring a tear sample with a plain Schirmer test. Utilizing this technique it is possible to determine the concentrations of Ap4A in the tears of patients and in such a manner to diagnose objectively dry eye[10].

Treatment

A variety of approaches can be taken to treatment. These can be summarized as: avoidance of exacerbating factors, tear stimulation and supplementation, wound healing and prevention, increasing tear retention, eyelid cleansing, and treatment of eye inflammation.[11]

General measures

Dry eyes can be exacerbated by smokey environments, dust and air conditioning and by our natural tendency to reduce our blink rate when concentrating. Purposefully blinking, especially during computer use and resting tired eyes are basic steps that can be taken to minimise discomfort.[11] Rubbing one’s eyes can irritate them further, so should be avoided [6]. Conditions such as blepharitis can often co-exist[11] and paying particular attention to cleaning the eyelids morning and night with mild shampoos and warm compresses can improve both conditions.

Environmental control

Dry, drafty environments and those with smoke and dust should be avoided.[3] This includes avoiding hair dryers, heaters, air conditioners or fans, especially when these devices are directed toward the eyes.[6] Wearing glasses or directing gaze downward, for example, by lowering computer screens can be helpful to protect the eyes when aggravating environmental factors cannot be avoided [6]. Using a humidifier,[3][4] especially in the winter,[4] can help by adding moisture to the dry indoor air[6].[11]. For mild and moderate cases, supplemental lubrication is an important part of treatment.[1] Application of artificial tears every few hours[3] can provide temporary relief.

Autologous serum eye drops

None of the commercially available artificial tear preparations include essential tear components such as epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, fibronectin, neurotrophic growth factor, and vitamin A-all of which have been shown to play important roles in the maintenance of a healthy ocular surface epithelial milieu. Autologous serum eye drops contain these essential factors. However, there is some controversy regarding the efficacy of this treatment. At least one study (PubMed) has demonstrated that this modality is more effective than artificial tears in a randomized control study.

Additional options

Lubricating tear ointments can be used during the day, but they generally are used at bedtime due to poor vision after application.[1] They contain white petrolatum, mineral oil, and similar lubricants.[1] They serve as a lubricant and an emollient.[1] Application requires pulling down the eyelid and applying a small amount (0.25 in) inside.[1] Depending on the severity of the condition, it may be applied from every hour to just at bedtime.[1] It should not be used with contact lenses.[1] Specially designed glasses that form a moisture chamber around the eye may be used to create additional humidity.[6]

Medication

Inflammation occurring in response to tears film hypertonicity can be suppressed by mild topical steroids or with topical immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin.[12][13] For example, elevated levels of tear NGF have been shown to be decreased with 0.1% prednisolone.[1]

Fish consumption and omega-3 fatty acids

Consumption of dietary omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a decreased incidence of dry eye syndrome in women.[14] The underlying mechanism may be a reduction in pro-inflammatory proteins in the tear film.[14]. Early experimental work on omega-3 has shown promising results when used in a topical application [15] or given orally.[16]. We suggest using omega-3 fatty acids in both ways; orally and topically (alpha-linolenic acid was used in the study of topicals) .

Restasis

Topical cyclosporine A (tCSA) 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion is an immunosuppressant, marketed in the United States by Allergan under the trade name Restasis[1]. Approved as a prescription drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[5] in 2002, the eye drop is reported to decrease surface inflammation[6]. Restasis is thought to work through inhibition[17] of transcription factors required for cytokine production and T-lymphocyte maturation.[18] A review of the summary basis of approval from the FDA website shows in a trial involving 1200 people, Restasis demonstrated a small positive effect: increased tear production in 15% of patients, compared to 5% with placebo[5]. Thus, only 10% of dry eye patients benefit from Restasis.

The typical prescription for Restasis is one drop instilled in each eye twice a day, 12 hours apart.[1] Restasis should not be used while wearing contact lenses,[1] during eye infections [5] or in people with a history of herpes virus infections[6]. Side effects include burning sensation (common)[5], redness, discharge, watery eyes, eye pain, foreign body sensation, itching, stinging, and blurred vision.[1][5] Long term use of cyclosporin at high doses is associated with an increased risk of cancer[19][20].

Generic alternatives

Less expensive generic alternatives to Restasis are available in some countries. In India, the generic is marketed as Cyclomune by Sun Pharma.[20]

Conserving tears

There are methods that allow both natural and artificial tears to stay longer, but have limited benefit[6]

Blocking tear drainage

In each eye, there are two puncta,[22]  which are small openings that drain tears into the tear ducts[5]. There are methods to partially or completely close the tear ducts.[6] This blocks the flow of tears into the nose, and thus more tears are available to the eyes.[3]

Punctal plugs

Punctal plug

Punctal plugs are inserted into the puncta to block tear drainage.[5] For people who have not found dry eye relief with drugs, punctal plugs may provide limited benefit.[5] The plugs are reserved for people with moderate or severe dry eye when other medical treatment has not been adequate.[5]

Cauterization

If punctal plugs are effective, thermal[6] or electric[1] cauterization of puncti can be performed.

In thermal cauterization, a local anesthetic is used, and then a hot wire is applied.[6] This shrinks the drainage area tissues and causes scarring, which closes the tear duct.[6]

Customized contact lenses

Persons with severe dry eyes may benefit from the Boston Ocular Surface Prosthesis, which is a customized contact lens.[6] Resting on the sclera, the prosthesis creates a fluid filled layer over the cornea, thus preventing corneal drying.[6]

Surgery

In severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, tarsorrhaphy may be performed where the eyelids are partially sewn together. This reduces the palpebral fissure (eyelid separation), ideally leading to a reduction in tear evaporation.[3]

Experimental topical growth factors

Eye drops, containing the factors present in the normal, healthy corneal tissue, that are topically applied to the corneal surface are currently in clinical testing for moderate to severe dry eye. These eye drops are currently in development at A & G Therapeutics, Inc. of Irvine, CA in the USA.

Prognosis

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca usually is a chronic problem.[6] Prognosis of the disease shows considerable variance, depending upon the severity of the condition.[1] Many patients have mild-to-moderate cases, and can be treated symptomatically with lubricants[1] providing an adequate relief of symptoms.[1]

When dry eye symptoms are severe, vision and the quality of life is diminished.[5] People sometimes feel their vision blurs with use,[3] or severe irritation[3] to the point that they have trouble keeping their eyes open[5] or they may not be able to work or drive[5]. Those using a CRT or computer screen all day at work will likely experience extreme discomfort, sometimes to the point of being visually disabled.

Prevention

Experimental procedures to prevent dry eye are being studied. These methods include the topical application of stem cell derived proteins and other nutrients to revitalize the natural protein and nutrient content of the acqueous portion of the tear film.

References

  1. “Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca”. eMedicine. WebMD, Inc.. 2006-04-21. http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic695.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  2. “Keratoconjunctivitis, Sicca”. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck & Co., Inc.. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/30107.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-18.  “Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca”. The Merck Manual, Home Edition. Merck & Co., Inc.. 2003-02-01. http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec20/ch230/ch230d.html. Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  3. “Dry eyes”. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2006-10-04. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003087.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  4. Michelle (May-June 2005). “Dealing with Dry Eye”. FDA Consumer Magazine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2005/305_eye.html. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  5. “Dry eyes”. Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 2006-06-14. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dry-eyes/DS00463/DSECTION=1. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  6. Sendecka M, Baryluk A, Polz-Dacewicz M (2004). “Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome”. Przegl Epidemiol 58 (1): 227-33. PMID 15218664. 
  7. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Nakar S, Vinker S (2005). “Dry eye in diabetic patients”. Am J Ophthalmol 139 (3): 498-503. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2004.10.022. PMID 15767060. 
  8. Li H, Pang G, Xu Z (2004). “Tear film function of patients with type 2 diabetes”. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 26 (6): 682-6. PMID 15663232. 
  9. A. Peral, G. Carracedo, M.C. Acosta, J. Gallar, J. Pintor.”Increasing Levels of Diadenosine Polyphosphates in Dry Eye” (2006)Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.47 (9):4053-4058 [1]
  10. Lemp MA. (2008). “Management of Dry Eye”. American Journal of Managed Care 14 (4): S88-S101. PMID 18452372. 
  11. Tatlipinar S, Akpek E (2005). “Topical cyclosporine in the treatment of ocular surface disorders”. Br J Ophthalmol 89 (10): 1363-7. doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.070888. PMID 16170133. 
  12. Barber L, Pflugfelder S, Tauber J, Foulks G (2005). “Phase III safety evaluation of cyclosporine 0.1% ophthalmic emulsion administered twice daily to dry eye disease patients for up to 3 years”. Ophthalmology 112 (10): 1790-4. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2005.05.013. PMID 16102833. 
  13. MiljanoviA,a€¡ B, Trivedi K, Dana M, Gilbard J, Buring J, Schaumberg D (2005). “Relation between dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome in women”. Am J Clin Nutr 82 (4): 887-93. PMID 16210721. 
  14. Rashid S, Jin Y, Ecoiffier T, Barabino S, Schaumberg M, Dana R D (2008). “Topical Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids for Treatment of Dry Eye”. Arch Ophthalmol 126 (2): 219-225. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2007.61. PMID 18268213. 
  15. Creuzot C, Passemard M, Viau S, Joffre C, Pouliquen P, Elena PP, Bron A, Brignole F (2008). “Improvement of dry eye symptoms with polyunsaturated fatty acids”. J Fr Ophtalmol 29 (8): 868-73. doi:JFO-10-2006-29-8-0181-5512-101019-200606358. PMID 17075501. 
  16. Micromedex Healthcare Series, (electronic version). Thomson Micromedex, Greenwood Village, Colorado, USA. Available at: http://0-www.thomsonhc.com.library.uchsc.edu:80 (cited: 09/05/06).
  17. Barber LD, Pflugfelder SC, Tauber J, Foulks GN. Phase III safety evaluation of cyclosporine 0.1% ophthalmic emulsion administered twice daily to dry eye disease patients for up to 3 years. Ophthalmology. 2005 Oct;112(10):1790-4.
  18. “Restasis” (PDF). Allergan. January 2008. http://www.allergan.com/assets/pdf/restasis_pi.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  19. Dantal J, Hourmant M, Cantarovich D, Giral M, Blancho G, Dreno B, Soulillou JP. (1998). “Effect of long-term immunosuppression in kidney-graft recipients on cancer incidence: randomised comparison of two cyclosporin regimens”. The Lancet 351 (9103): 623-628. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)08496-1. PMID 9500317.
  20. “Sun Pharma Product List”. Sun Pharma. http://www.sunpharma.com/sunpharma-products/sunpharma-formulation/spopup11.php. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  21. “Dry eye syndrome”. Health encyclopaedia. NHS Direct. 2006-04-10. http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleId=137&PrintPage=1. Retrieved 2007-02-26. 
  22. “Dry eyes syndrome”. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2006-10-04. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000426.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  23. Meiero A, Peral A, Pintor J. (2006) Dual roles of diadenosine polyphosphates in corneal epithelial cell migration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Oct;47(10):4500-6.

 


Does Lupus Cause Hair Loss

Arthritis, any of more than 100 different diseases causing pain, stiffness, and in most cases, swelling in the joints.Arthritis affects people of both sexes and of all races, socioeconomic levels, and geographic areas.Osteoarthritis is the most common type of knee arthritis.

Also called wear-and-tear arthritis or degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis is characterized by progressive wearing away of the cartilage of the joint. As the protective cartilage is worn away by knee arthritis, bare bone is exposed within the joint.
Knee arthritis symptoms tend to progress as the condition worsens. What is interesting about knee arthritis is that symptoms do not always progress steadily with time. Often patients report good months and bad months or symptom changes with weather changes.

This is important to understand because comparing the symptoms of arthritis on one particular day may not accurately represent the overall progression of the condition.The most common symptoms of knee arthritis are:pain with activities, limited range of motion, stiffness of the knee, swelling of the joint, tenderness along the joint, a feeling the joint may “give out”, deformity of the joint (knock-knees or bow-legs).
Rheumatologists, physicians who diagnose and treat arthritis and related conditions, use a variety of diagnostic techniques. The first step is a thorough history and physical examination, during which the doctor questions the patient about symptoms and medical history to learn about potential exposure to infectious agents or a family history of arthritis.

The patient is examined to determine the pattern of joints affected. With this information, rheumatologists are usually able to make a diagnosis. Laboratory tests are used to help diagnose inflammatory arthritis.

For example, a blood test called erythrocyte sedimentation rate measures how quickly red blood cells cling together and fall to the bottom of a test tube. When there is inflammation in the body, red blood cells sink faster.

This test lets physicians evaluate how severe the inflammation is. Rheumatologists also test a patient’s blood or synovial fluid for the presence of specific antibodies-disease-fighting agents activated in the body by infections.

The presence of rheumatoid factor antibodies, for example, is an indication of rheumatoid arthritis, and antinuclear antibodies can be an indication of lupus. The presence of these antibodies along with clinical symptoms help establish the diagnosis. Physicians may also elect to test for the presence of specific genes, such as the HLA-B27 gene.
The primary goal of treatment is to reduce joint pain and inflammation and to maximize joint mobility. To this end, rheumatologists work closely with patients and their families to develop a treatment regimen incorporating exercise and rest as well as pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory drugs, and in some types of arthritis, drugs that slow the progress of the disease.
Low impact, regular exercise is very important in maintaining muscle strength and joint mobility. One of the best forms of exercise for people with arthritis is swimming, an activity that lets participants use muscles with minimal joint strain.

Arthritis sufferers benefit from physical therapy programs specially tailored to their age level and degree of mobility. Stretching and hot showers before exercise and applying ice packs to muscles and joints after exercise minimize discomfort related to exercise.

Rest is another crucial element of arthritis treatment. In addition to recommending at least eight hours of sleep a night, rheumatologists may also advise patients to use a cane, splint, sling, or special footwear to rest or stabilize affected joints periodically during the day.
Almost all drugs used to treat arthritis can have side effects and may not work for all patients with arthritis. Researchers are investigating alternatives to traditional drug therapy and other treatment approaches.
If joint damage is severe, patients with arthritis may need to have surgical treatment. Total hip and total knee replacements can significantly relieve pain and improve joint function. In some cases, surgeons replace damaged or deteriorating joints with artificial stainless steel or plastic components in a procedure called arthroplasty.


Lupus Causes And Diagnosis

WHAT IS PEYRONIE’S DISEASE?

Peyronie’s disease consists of hard, fibrous tissue, called plaques, developing within the penile shaft. The plaques are hard, thickened and stiff areas, actually a kind of internal scarring. In this fibroid tissue also calcium compounds can accumulate, making the plaques even harder.

The Peyronie’s disease is also called cavernositis, and also sometimes plastic induration. There is probably a chronic inflammation process that leads to this scarring.

The thickened area has less blood flow than normal penile tissue, and do not fill with blood and swell as the normal spongy areas in the inside of the penis. Therefore the penis swells more at the opposite side, and gets a curvature towards the side containing the plaques when erected.

If the plaques are found at several places, more complex deformations will develop. The abnormal bending, twisting or swelling within the penis, often also lead to painful erections.

Any man from the age of 18 and upwards can develop Peyronie’s disease. The average age of men suffering from Peyronie’s disease is 50.

THE SYMPTOMS AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONDITION

The three main characteristics of cavernositis are:

  • One or more small hard lumps underneath the skin, or a continuous hard, stiff and thickened area.
  • Abnormal bent or crooked penis when erect. All penises have some curvature, but by this disease, the penile bend increases, and one may get a very curved penis. The penis may be bent as a banana or in an angular fashion. The penile bending is most often up, but may be down, to the left side, to right or sloping.

-The bending is usually to the same side as that of the hard thickened area when the penis is erected.

-The hard areas in the erected penis may look like bumps, making the penis irregular.

  • Sometimes the penis bends greatly enough to make sexual intercourse difficult, or impossible.
  • Pain during erections caused by the pressure from the hard areas in the penis, or from the stretched skin at the opposite side of the penis.
  • One may not notice the bend immediately, as it tends to develop over one to three months and later than the hardness and stiffness of the indurations.
  • The plastic induration may progress and cause impotence. Sometimes the Peyroni’s disease will clear up by itself, but this may take several years.

 

THE CAUSES OF PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

The exact cause of the induration is unknown. It’s not a sign of an underlying serious condition, and it is not a sexually transmitted infection. It is possible that the disease can begin with an inflammation in the penile tissue. An inflammation may be caused by an allergic or auto-immune reaction. Although the Peyronie’s disease is not an infection, an initial infection can damage the penile tissue and cause an inflammation that develops into Peyronie’s disease. Men having the inflammatory condition called Systemic Lupus Erytematosus more often get Peyronie’s disease.

Vitamin E deficiency seems to be a contributing factor in causing the disease. Diabetes may cause damage of blood vessels, and if this damage occurs in the erectile bodies of the penis, Peyronie’s disease can develop. Peyronie’s disease is sometimes a side effect of the drug Inderal (propanolol) used against high blood pressure.

Sometimes a physical injury to the penis that causes internal bleeding, or a series of such injuries, is the initial cause. A habit of violent sexual activity may cause such injuries. It is thought that some men may have a genetic disposition to the condition.

Plastic induration of the penis is not a cancer, and cannot cause cancer, however a lump or deformation in your genitals that develops, must be examined.

TREATMENT OG PEYRONIE’S DISEASE

Not all men with Payronie’s disease require treatment. The disease sometimes go away by itself. If the condition is pronounced, it is also difficult to find a remedy that can cure every sign of the disease, but several methods can take away most penis changes associated with Peyronie’s. Here is a survey of treatment methods used today.

Tamoxifen – In its early stages of the disease a medication called Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent the formation of the fibrous plaque by Peyronie’s disease. This drug is also used in the treatment of breast cancer, but the two conditions are not related.

 

Vitamin E and B – Vitamin E and B is sometimes effective in easing the pain and as a treatment for the penile deformity by Peyronie’s disease.

 

Verapamil – Verapamil, often used in the treatment of high blood pressure, has been shown to decrease the size of the plaque and decrease the pain when injected directly into the plaque, and thus also improve the penis shape distortion by peyronie’s disease.

 

Shock wave therapy – Extracorporeal shock wave therapy, or ESWT, a new treatment, is being used in some hospitals for the Peyronie’s disease. Although the initial results of this new approach to treat Peyronie’s disease have been promising, the long-term outcome is still undetermined.

 

Surgery – This is sometimes considered if Payroni’s disease has lasted for a year or more and it hasn’t progressed or regressed for at least three months. By the Nesbitt procedure one removes tissue opposite to the curve to straighten the penis. Another procedure involves putting a graft or part of a vein within the fibrous plaque to lengthen this area. In certain cases of Pyrenees disease, surgical insertion of a penile prosthesis (implant) is recommended.

Radiation therapy – This treatment modality has been tried, but the results are unpredictable and sometimes the opposite of the intended one.

 

Traction devices – On the market, you can buy mechanical devices to use on the penis some time daily that gently pull upon the penile tissue to straighten out the penis, and thus mending the penis from the curvature caused by Peyronie’s disease.


Lupus Cancer Research

Aarkstore.com announce a new report through its vast collection of market research report :

R&D Trends: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – Benlysta’s FDA approval provides hope for disease treatment, future trial design, and other pipeline candidates

For some-more information, Great fully visit:

http://www.aarkstore.com/reports/R-D-Trends-Systemic-Lupus-Erythematosus-Benlysta’s-FDA-approval-provides-hope-for-disease-treatment-future-trial-design-and-other-pipeline-candidates-136194.html

Introduction

There remains considerable debate over the optimum efficacy measure and clinical trial design in SLE. While the SLE Responder Index has proved successful in demonstrating the efficacy of Benlysta (belimumab; Human Genome Sciences/GlaxoSmithKline) such that many other trials are now following suit, it is unclear if this will spur other successes.

Features and benefits

* Benchmark novel and existing therapies using the ideal target product profiles identified by and access leading rheumatologists’ opinion
* Support R&D decision making by evaluating lupus clinical trial designs that have set a precedent, as well as analysis of discontinued projects

Highlights

Identified 32 drug candidates in development for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with four products in Phase III. Recent negative outcomes of major clinical trials threaten to move industry away from drug development in SLE, but Benlysta’s recent US approval may ignite further commercial interest in this disease.
Two new B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) candidates have emerged within the late-stage SLE pipeline. Eli Lilly’s LY2127399 and Anthera Pharmaceuticals’ A-623 are both being investigated based on the novel SLE Responder Index. While this approach was successful for Benlysta, it remains to be seen if this can be emulated by other candidates.
The FDA published its formal guidance for industry for developing a medical product for SLE in June 2010, pointing to the use of disease activity indices in clinical trials. However, many specialists believe that the answer is to move away from these kinds of instruments and to check objective measures, such as biomarkers.

Your key questions answered

* What lessons can be learned from past clinical trials in SLE and how can these be applied to novel pipeline candidates?
* How does the recent approval of Benlysta impact the future of drug development for SLE?
* What are the most promising trends seen in early stages of the SLE pipeline?

Table of Contents :
Executive Summary
Strategic scoping and focus
key findings
Related reports
OVERVIEW
Catalyst
Summary
CLINICAL PIPELINE OVERVIEW
Lupus pipeline
Notable movements in the SLE pipeline
Overall increase in the number of late-stage candidates
B-cell directed therapies are leading the way
Lack of industry-sponsored clinical trials conducted in Japan
Compounds recently discontinued
Orencia (abatacept; Bristol-Myers Squibb)
Apremilast (CC-10004; Celgene)
NNC-0152-0000-0001 (Novo Nordisk)
Gusperimus trihydrochloride (NKT-01; Nippon Kayaku)
MEDI-546
TARGET PRODUCT PROFILE
Off-label treatments are the gold-standard therapies for SLE
Comparator one: Rituxan/MabThera (rituximab; Biogen Idec/Roche)
Comparator two: CellCept (mycophenolate mofetil; Roche/Vifor Pharma)
Target product profile versus current level of attainment
CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
Regulatory guidance on clinical trial design
FDA finally publishes full formal industry guidance
Summary of formal FDA guidance for industry in SLE
Summary of FDA guidance for industry in lupus nephritis
EMA guidelines
Similarities can be seen in recent trial designs
Standard of care
Endpoints


What Are The Warning Signs Of Lupus

We have all heard the saying, “You are what you eat” – what you put on the inside reflects the way you look and feel on the outside.  This saying is not only true when it comes to weight, but from the way your skin feels to the health of your hair and even to the look of your nails.  In fact, your nails can tell you a lot more about your health than many of the “obvious” physical factors that we often turn to when judging our wellbeing.  They can inform you of malnutrition, infection, and even serious disease.

The nails are made up of layers of keratin, a protein that is also found in our skin and hair.  There are 6 separate components that make up nails including: the nail plate (the hard protective coating that is most visible), nail folds (the skin around the nail plate), the nail bed (the skin underneath the nail plate), the lunula (the whitish crescent moon at the bottom of the nail), the cuticle (the tissue overlapping the nail plate), and the matrix (an area under the cuticle where the nail grows from). Typically, fingernails grow 2 – 3 millimeters  every month and toenails grow 1 millimeter, although growth is faster in the summer months, as well as on your dominant hand.

Here are several signs of ill-health that your nails may try to be warning you of:

1.  Discoloration: The color of your nails can be a clue to certain diseases

a. White – may suggest liver disease

b. Whitish nail beds – (along with thin, concaves) could be signs of anemia (iron-deficiency)

c. ½ White, ½ Pink – may mean kidney disease

d. Red – may signal heart disease

e. Yellow – lung disease (if also associated with think, slow-growing nails that may detach from the bed and/or “Clubbing,” a painless increase in tissue around the ends of the fingers); may be a sign of other respiratory diseases as well

f. Yellowish with a slight blush at the base – this may be a sign of diabetes

g. Irregular red lines (blood vessels) – if found around the nail base may be signs of lupus

h. Dark lines – if found underneath the nail may suggest melanoma

2.  Pitting: Tiny dents in the nails, along with splitting and peeling are common in psoriasis and inflammatory arthritis

3.  Dry, brittle nails that crack easily: This could be a signal towards thyroid disease

4.  Spoon nails (koilonychia):  Soft nails that look scooped out, with the depression usually large enough to hold a drop of liquid, may be [another] sign of iron deficiency anemia

While none of these signs are a guarantee that you have a certain health condition, it is better to be precautious and to get them checked out.  Furthermore, making healthy changes to your diet in order to combat some of these illnesses/diseases is always a welcomed choice and will not only insure that your nails look in tip-top shape, but that your overall wellbeing is right up there too.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Rash Face

Understanding Lupus and Staying Healthy

Author: Steven A Johnson

The disease Lupus is classified as an autoimmune disease, and it can affect different parts of the body. In most people it affects the skin, joints, heart, lungs, blood, kidneys and brain. In the case of a normal healthy body, the immune system produces proteins that are called antibodies. These antibodies serve to protect the body against infection, viruses, bacteria, and other foreign matter. The term for these foreign materials is antigens.

What happens when the body is affected with an autoimmune disorder like lupus is that the immune system becomes confused and cannot tell the difference between foreign material and its own cells and tissues. The immune system then begins to make antibodies and directs them against itself; these antibodies are called auto-antibodies. The auto-antibodies affect the body by causing inflammation, pain and damage in different parts of the body.

The primary feature of Lupus is usually considered to be inflammation. The term inflammation in Latin means “set on fire,” and is identified by pain, heat, redness, swelling and loss of function. This can occur on the inside or on the outside of the body, or in some cases or both.

There are considered to be four main types of lupus: discoid, systemic, drug-induced and neonatal lupus.

Discoid type lupus always affects the skin. It is characterized by a rash that appears on the face, neck, and scalp. Discoid lupus can be diagnosed by taking a biopsy of the rash and performing tests. The biopsy will show certain anomalies that are not present in skin without the rash. Discoid lupus usually will not involve problem with the body’s internal organs. In roughly 10 percent of people diagnosed with this disease, discoid lupus can evolve into a more severe problem, and can affect almost any organ or system of the body. It is impossible to predict or prevent this from happening. Unfortunately treatment of discoid lupus will not stop it from progressing to this stage. It is likely that individuals who experience this problem, probably had systemic lupus all along, and the discoid rash was the main symptom.

Systemic lupus is found to be more severe than the previously mentioned discoid lupus, because it affects almost any organ or organ system of the body. It differs from person to person; for some people only the skin and joints may be involved. For other people, the joints, lungs, kidneys, blood, or other organs and/or tissues could be affected. The problem with diagnosing systemic lupus is that, usually no two persons affected with systemic lupus will display identical symptoms. One of the most identifiable symptoms of systemic lupus is that the individual may experience periods in which few (or any) symptoms are evident which is called remission. Other times individuals will experience “flares” which is when the disease becomes more active.

Drug-induced lupus can occur after the use of certain prescribed medications. One of the tricky things about this form of lupus is that the symptoms are similar to those of systemic lupus. The two medications that are most connected with drug-induced lupus are hydralazine and procainamide. Drug induced lupus is generally more common in men because they are given these drugs more often. However, it should be noted that not everyone who takes these medications does or will develop this type of lupus. Roughly about 4 percent of the people who take these medications will develop this type of lupus. Also the symptoms will generally fade when the drugs are discontinued.

Neonatal lupus is a rare and serious condition that is acquired from the passage of maternal auto-antibodies. This particular type of lupus can affect the skin, heart and blood of the fetus and newborn child. The symptoms are associated with a rash that will appear during the first few weeks of life. This rash may continue for roughly six months before fading completely. Neonatal lupus is not classified as systemic lupus.

While there is no cure for lupus, depending on the severity of your disease, it is possible to live a full and normal life. There are natural products available to help with pain and provide dietary support to ailing immune systems. One such product is Lupazol by Micronutra, Lupazol is a nutritional matrix designed to supplement what you don’t find in your daily diet.

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/health-articles/understanding-lupus-and-staying-healthy-765936.html

About the Author

Steven Johnson is interested in maintaining a vital, active, and healthy lifestyle. For more information on daily health supplements, as well as other life-enhancing nutrients, please visit his website Alternative Health Supplements.