RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body ‘attack on the immune system itself. The pattern of joints affected is usually symmetrical, involves the hands and other joints and is worse in the morning.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease, involving other organs, whereas osteoarthritis is limited to the joints. Over time, both forms of arthritis can be crippling. SLE Systemic Lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The etiology of cardiovascular disease probably involved an interaction between risk factors traditional and inflammation induced immune-mediated vascular injury, and hormonal and treatment-related factors.

autoimmune and chronic inflammatory nature of both RA and SLE may contribute to atherogenesis. However, there are enough differences in the pathogenesis, organ involvement, and the modalities of treatment of SLE and RA suggest that the differences may exist in the development of atherosclerosis in each of these diseases
Entries the disease is often progressive, with fatigue, morning stiffness (with a duration of more than one hour), diffuse muscle pain, loss of appetite and weakness. Finally, joint pain appears, with warmth, swelling, tenderness, and stiffness of the joint after inactivity.

The cause of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown. However, RA involves an attack on the body’s own immune cells (autoimmune disease). Different cases may have different causes. Infectious, genetic and hormonal factors may play a role.RA usually affects the joints on both sides of the body also — wrists, fingers, knees, feet and ankles are the most affected.

Difformits result from the destruction of cartilage, bone erosions, and tendon inflammation and fracture. A joint life-threatening complications can occur when the cervical spine becomes unstable as a result of RA.Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease that attacks the first synovium, a connective tissue membrane that lines the cavity between joints and secret liquid lubrication.

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7 thoughts on “Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treatments

  1. bml

    I have to compare turners syndrome to lupus and i need help!?
    Here is the question i have to answer:
    Compare your disease with systemic lupus erythematosus and evaluate which disease is worse and why (think about body systems affected, treatment, and prognosis)

  2. jaz mie

    what is SLE(Systemic Lupus Erythematosus)?
    please explain to me SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) more, so i can fully understand the illness.
    i want to know about the possibility of death on teenagers who suffer SLE.
    are there teenagers who’re aware of their illness and can already predict when they’ll pass away?
    are there cases like this?
    who are the persons who’re usually having SLE?
    what are the causes?symptoms?treatments?
    do they have medications?

    thanks!

    1. Anonymous

      Systemic lupus erythematosus , often abbreviated to SLE or lupus, is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that can affect any part of the body. As occurs in other autoimmune diseases, the immune system attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage.

      SLE most often harms the heart, joints, skin, lungs, blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. The course of the disease is unpredictable, with periods of illness (called flares) alternating with remissions. The disease occurs nine times more often in women than in men, especially women in child-bearing years ages 15 to 35, and is more common in those of non-European descent.

      Treatment

      SLE is treatable through addressing its symptoms, mainly with cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants; there is currently no cure. SLE can be fatal, although with recent medical advances, fatalities are becoming increasingly rare. Survival for people with SLE in the United States, Canada, and Europe is approximately 95% at five years, 90% at 10 years, and 78% at 20 years.

      Symptoms

      SLE is one of several diseases known as “the great imitators” because it often mimics or is mistaken for other illnesses.[7] SLE is a classical item in differential diagnosis,[3] because SLE symptoms vary widely and come and go unpredictably. Diagnosis can thus be elusive, with some people suffering unexplained symptoms of untreated SLE for years.

      Common initial and chronic complaints include fever, malaise, joint pains, myalgias, fatigue, and temporary loss of cognitive abilities. Because they are so often seen with other diseases, these signs and symptoms are not part of the diagnostic criteria for SLE.

      Causes

      There is no one specific cause of SLE. There are, however, a number of environmental triggers and a number of genetic susceptibilities

  3. sekhmet179

    What are the four stages of treatment for lupus?
    I remember reading somewhere that there were four stages of treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus I think it was like
    I-corticosteroids
    II-?
    III-?
    IV-Immunosuppressors, chemotherapy, etc

    I was wondering if there was anything like this on the internet or whether I am confusing it with the kidney affected stages? (I doubt it but you never know…)

    Thanks in advance for any info, and please be sure to set up a link to where you got your info

    1. Cheryl M

      What is the treatment for systemic lupus?

      There is no permanent cure for SLE. The goal of treatment is to relieve symptoms and protect organs by decreasing inflammation and/or the level of autoimmune activity in the body. Many patients with mild symptoms may need no treatment or only intermittent courses of antiinflammatory medications. Those with more serious illness involving damage to internal organ(s) may require high doses of corticosteroids in combination with other medications that suppress the body’s immune system.

      Patients with SLE need more rest during periods of active disease. Researchers have reported that poor sleep quality was a significant factor in developing fatigue in patients with SLE. These reports emphasize the importance for patients and physicians to address sleep quality and the effect of underlying depression, lack of exercise, and self-care coping strategies on overall health. During these periods, carefully prescribed exercise is still important to maintain muscle tone and range of motion in the joints.

      Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are helpful in reducing inflammation and pain in muscles, joints, and other tissues. Examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn), and sulindac (Clinoril). Since the individual response to NSAIDs varies among patients, it is common for a doctor to try different NSAIDs to find the most effective one with the fewest side effects. The most common side effects are stomach upset, abdominal pain, ulcers, and even ulcer bleeding. NSAIDs are usually taken with food to reduce side effects. Sometimes, medications that prevent ulcers while taking NSAIDs, such as misoprostol (Cytotec), are given simultaneously.

      Corticosteroids are more potent than NSAIDs in reducing inflammation and restoring function when the disease is active. Corticosteroids are particularly helpful when internal organs are involved. Corticosteroids can be given by mouth, injected directly into the joints and other tissues, or administered intravenously. Unfortunately, corticosteroids have serious side effects when given in high doses over prolonged periods, and the doctor will try to monitor the activity of the disease in order to use the lowest doses that are safe. Side effects of corticosteroids include weight gain, thinning of the bones and skin, infection, diabetes, facial puffiness, cataracts, and death (necrosis) of large joints.

      Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) is an antimalarial medication found to be particularly effective for SLE patients with fatigue, skin, and joint disease. Side effects include diarrhea, upset stomach, and eye pigment changes. Eye pigment changes are rare, but require monitoring by an ophthalmologist (eye specialist) during treatment with Plaquenil. Researchers have found that Plaquenil significantly decreased the frequency of abnormal blood clots in patients with systemic SLE. Moreover, the effect seemed independent of immune suppression, implying that Plaquenil can directly act to prevent the blood clots. This fascinating work highlights an important reason for patients and doctors to consider Plaquenil, especially for those SLE patients who are at some risk for blood clots in veins and arteries, such as those with phospholipid antibodies (cardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, and false positive VDRL). This means not only that Plaquenil reduces the chance for reflares of SLE, but it can also be beneficial in ‘thinning’ the blood to prevent abnormal excessive blood clotting.

      For resistant skin disease, other antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine (Aralen) or quinacrine, are considered, and can be used in combination with hydroxychloroquine. Alternative medications for skin disease include dapsone and retinoic acid (Retin-A). Retin-A is often effective for an uncommon wart-like form of lupus skin disease. For more severe skin disease, immunosuppressive medications are considered as below.

      Medications that suppress immunity (immunosuppressive medications) are also called cytotoxic drugs. Immunosuppressive medications are used for treating patients with more severe manifestations of SLE with damage to internal organ(s). Examples of immunosuppressive medications include methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall), azathioprine (Imuran), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), chlorambucil (Leukeran), and cyclosporine (Sandimmune). All immunosuppressive medications can seriously depress blood cell counts and increase risks of infection and bleeding. Other side effects are peculiar for each drug. For examples, Rheumatrex can cause liver toxicity, while Sandimmune can impair kidney function.

      In recent years, mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept) has been used as an effective medication for lupus, particularly when it associated with kidney disease. Cellcept has been helpful in reversing active lupus kidney disease (lupus renal disease) and in maintaining remission after it is established. It’s lower side effect profile has advantage over traditional immune suppression medications.

      In SLE patients with serious brain or kidney disease, plasmapheresis is sometimes used to remove antibodies and other immune substances from the blood to suppress immunity. Some SLE patients can develop seriously low platelet levels, thereby increasing the risk of excessive and spontaneous bleeding. Since the spleen is believed to be the major site of platelet destruction, surgical removal of the spleen is sometimes performed to improve platelet levels. Other treatments have included plasmapheresis and the use of male hormones. Plasmapheresis has also been used to remove proteins (cryoglobulins) that can lead to vasculitis. Endstage kidney damage from SLE requires dialysis and/or a kidney transplant.

      Most recent research is indicating benefits of rituximab (Rituxan) in treating lupus. Rituximab is an intravenously infused antibody that suppresses a particular white blood cell, the B cell, by decreasing their number in the circulation. B cells have been found to play a central role in lupus activity, and when they are suppressed, the disease tends toward remission.

      At the 2007 national Rheumatology meeting, there was a paper presented suggesting that low dose dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils could help patients with lupus by decreasing disease activity and possibly decreasing heart disease risk.

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