Glomerulonephritis (glo-mer-u-lo-nuh-FRI-tis) is a type of kidney disease. It is caused by inflammation of the internal kidney structures (glomeruli). Also called glomerular disease, glomerulonephritis can be acute, referring to a sudden attack of inflammation, or chronic, which comes on gradually. Kidney disease of diabetes, IgA nephropathy, and lupus nephritis are some types of glomerulonephritis. IT is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli. It may be asymptomatic, or present with hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood resp. protein in the urine ). Glomerular lesions in acute glomerulonephritis are the result of glomerular deposition or in situ formation of immune complexes. There are many recognised types, divided in acute, subacute or chronic glomerulonephritis. Acute glomerulonephritis is currently described as a clinical syndrome that frequently manifests as a sudden onset of hematuria, proteinuria, and red cell casts. Acute glomerulonephritis refers to a specific set of renal diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue.
Glomerulonephritis may be a temporary and reversible condition, or it may get worse. Chronic glomerulonephritis represents the end-stage of all glomerulonephritis with unfavorable evolution. During glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli become inflamed and impair the kidney’s ability to filter urine. Chronic glomerulonephritis is often associated with an autoimmune reaction, when the body attacks various parts of itself. It can be a complication of streptococcal infections, including strep throat, particularly in children ages 6 to 10. Less often, it results from other bacterial or viral infections, especially measles, mumps, mononucleosis and HIV. When the kidney is damaged, it cannot get rid of wastes and extra fluid in the body. If the illness continues, the kidneys may stop working completely. Progressive glomerulonephritis may result in destruction of the kidney glomeruli and chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. Glomerular disease can be part of a systemic disease, such as lupus or diabetes, or it can be a disease by itself – primary glomerulonephritis. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.
Causes of Glomerulonephritis
The common causes of Glomerulonephritis include the following:
Too much protein and other substances to leak from the blood into the urine.
Polyarteritis nodosa group – an inflammatory disease of the arteries.
Specific problems with the body’s immune system.
It may develop after survival of the acute phase of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
Hypersensitivity vasculitis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders featuring small vessel and skin disease.
Some problems with the immune system (especially those involving immunoglobulin A antibodies), systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammation of the kidney’s blood vessels.
Symptoms of Glomerulonephritis
Some sign and symptoms related to Glomerulonephritis are as follows:
Blood in the urine (dark, rust-colored, or brown urine).
Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas.
Need to urinate at night.
Easy bruising or bleeding.
Lack of appetite.
Nausea and vomiting.
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.
Treatment of Glomerulonephritis
Here is list of the methods for treating Glomerulonephritis:
Streptococci ertensive medications may be used to attempt to control high blood pressure.
Bacteria are usually destroyed with antibiotics such as penicillin.
If glomerulonephritis progresses to end-stage renal failure, treatment options include dialysis and a kidney transplant.
Take calcium supplements.
Although use of diazoxide and hydralazine often is described, neither commonly is employed.
Corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, or other medications may be used to treat some of the causes of chronic glomerulonephritis .