The heart muscle needs a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood. The coronary arteries (see Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels: Blood Supply of the Heart), which branch off the aorta just after it leaves the heart, deliver this blood. Coronary artery disease can block blood flow, causing chest pain (angina) or a heart attack (also called myocardial infarction, or MI).

Coronary artery disease was once widely thought to be a man's disease. On average, men develop it about 10 years earlier than women because, until menopause, women are protected by high levels of estrogen. However, after menopause, coronary artery disease becomes more common among women. Among people aged 75 and older, a higher proportion of women have the disease, because women live longer.

In developed countries, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in both men and women. Coronary artery disease, specifically coronary atherosclerosis (literally “hardening of the arteries,” which involves fatty deposits in the artery walls and may progress to narrowing and even blockage of blood flow in the artery), occurs in about 5 to 9% (depending on sex and race) of people aged 20 and older. The death rate increases with age and overall is higher for men than for women, particularly between the ages of 35 and 55. After age 55, the death rate for men declines, and the rate for women continues to climb. After age 70 to 75, the death rate for women exceeds that for men who are the same age.


Coronary artery disease is almost always due to the gradual buildup of cholesterol and other fatty materials (called atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques) in the wall of a coronary artery. This process is called atherosclerosis (see Atherosclerosis) and can affect many arteries, not just those of the heart.

Occasionally, however, coronary artery disease is caused by spasm of a coronary artery, which can occur spontaneously, or from use of certain drugs such as cocaine and nicotine. Rarely, the cause is a birth defect, a viral infection (such as Kawasaki disease), systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), inflammation of the arteries (arteritis), a blood clot that traveled from a heart chamber into one of the coronary arteries, or physical damage (from an injury or radiation therapy).

As an atheroma grows, it may bulge into the artery, narrowing the interior (lumen) of the artery and partially blocking blood flow. With time, calcium accumulates in the atheroma. As an atheroma blocks more and more of a coronary artery, the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) can become inadequate. The blood supply is more likely to be inadequate during exertion, when the heart muscle requires more blood. An inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle (from any cause) is called myocardial ischemia. If the heart does not receive enough blood, it can no longer contract and pump blood normally.

An atheroma, even one that is not blocking very much blood flow, may rupture suddenly. The rupture of an atheroma often triggers the formation of a blood clot (thrombus). The clot further narrows or completely blocks the artery, causing acute myocardial ischemia. The consequences of this acute ischemia are referred to as acute coronary syndromes (see Coronary Artery Disease: Acute Coronary Syndromes (Heart Attack; Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina)). These syndromes include unstable angina and several types of heart attack, depending on the location and degree of the blockage. In a heart attack, the area of the heart muscle supplied by the blocked artery dies.

Find powerful herbal remedies Herbal Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease

Herbal Remedies for Heart Care:

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has a tonic effect on the heart, lowers cholesterol and inhibits blood platelet collection. Ayurvedic physicians suggest that eating a little bit of ginger every day will help to prevent heart attack.

Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) Arjuna is a coronary vasodilator. It protects the heart, strengthens circulation, and helps to maintain the tone and health of the heart muscle. It is also useful in stopping bleeding and to promote healing after a heart attack. Current scientific research has proved that T.arjuna contains specific medically active constituents namely triterpine glycosides like arjunetosides I, II, III, IV, arjunine and arjunetein. Bark of Arjuna tree has been found to be rich in Co-enzyme Q-10 which is highly prescribed in cardiology departments now a days to prevent heart problems

Garlic (Allium sativum), (Lasuna) Garlic is a wonder drug for heart. Clinical trials have shown that fresh garlic and garlic supplements may lower cholesterol levels, prevent blood clots, and destroy plaque. When people with high blood pressure were given one clove of garlic a day for 12 weeks, their diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels were significantly reduced.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) A unique herb with anti-stress adaptogenic action that leads to better physical fitness and helps cope with life's daily stress. It is especially beneficial in stress related disorders such as arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, general debility.

Guggul (Commiphora mukul) It has been shown to lower blood-fat levels while raising levels of HDL, the so called “good cholesterol”. It is useful in atherosclerosis, psoriasis and cardiac ischemia.

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facts about lupus erythematosus

9 thoughts on “Facts About Lupus Erythematosus

  1. iowa_blonde2005

    What is a nursing diagnosis for Lupus Erythematosus?
    List a plan/goal for that diagnosis and 5 interventions for that plan/goal.

    1. Linda R

      I can’t imagine how a nursing diagnosis of lupus is different than any other diagnosis of lupus.

      Lupus is extremely complex. Systemic lupus can affect virtually any and every organ in the body, and varies from patient to patient. One my have kidney disease, another may have clotting issues because of antiphospholipid antinodies and still another may have seizures because of central nervous system involvement. Any plan must take into account the unique manifestations of lupus in the patient. A plan must also take into account the remitting/flaring nature of the disease.

      Regular medictal monitoring is recommended (every 3-6 months depending on disease activity)

      Patient eduction to increase likelihood of compliance.

      Nutritional and exercise counseling.

      Psychological counseling to help come to terms with the fact that we will never be cured.

      Coping strategies.


    Does anyone know anything about pleurisy? Have had it off and on for 5 months any doctor’s out there to help?
    Been to 3 different doc…been on lots of different meds….I do alot of mopping at my work….could that be an irritent to my pleurisy? Had blood test and CT SCAN and exrays… Is there anything else I should do or ask for?

    1. mrscmmckim

      This is a stock answer Doctors use when they don’t really know what is wrong with you.

      If in fact you have pleurisy, the pain would be so great you wouldn’t be able to mop! Trust me, I have had the real thing (8 days in the hospital).

      I suggest you go to a Pulmonologist

      Pulmonologists are medical doctors who further specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease, such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia. Pulmonologists perform tests to check how well a person is breathing, and they may use procedures such as bronchoscopy to diagnose a breathing problem.

      Once, a doctor told me I had pleurisy when what I had was an ulcer. Another time, I was told I had pleurisy and it was asthma, the kind that doesn’t cause wheezing but deep chest pain.

      Pleurisy, also called pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, which is the moist, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the rib cage. The condition can make breathing extremely painful, and sometimes it is associated with another condition called pleural effusion where excess fluid fills the area between the membrane’s layers.

      Viral infection is probably the most common cause of pleurisy. Other diseases that can cause pleurisy are lung infections, such as pneumoniapneumonia and tuberculosis, and other diseases such as systemic lupuslupus erythematosus (lupus), rheumatoid arthritisrheumatoid arthritis, cancercancer, liver and kidney diseasekidney disease, heart failureheart failure and pulmonary embolismpulmonary embolism. Other causes include chest injuries and drug reactions.

      Pleurisy and pleural effusion are generally only as serious as the underlying disease causing it. If you have either of these conditions, you may already be undergoing treatment for the underlying disease; if not, seek medical attention immediately.

      A pleural effusion can occur without pleurisy, as is the case in heart failure.

      Oftentimes, the distinctive pain caused by pleurisy is an important clue to your doctor. In addition, your doctor will listen to your chest with a stethoscope as you breathe. If this examination reveals pleural friction rub — the abrasive sound of the pleura’s two layers sliding against each other — the diagnosis is clear.

      Pleural friction rub produces a scraping, raspy sound that occurs at the end of your inhalation and the beginning of your exhalation, and it comes from the area directly over the pleural inflammation. A decrease in breath sounds and a change in their quality may allow your doctor to diagnose a pleural effusion.

      Your doctor may also take X-rays of your chest, which will be normal if you have pleurisy but show the fluid of a pleural effusion. CT scans and ultrasound scans may also be used to better visualize the chest cavity.

      If there is fluid present, your doctor may draw a sample of pleural fluid for analysis. Your doctor will determine the exact location of the fluid. Then, after injecting your back or chest with a local anesthetic, your doctor will use a syringe to extract the fluid in a procedure called thoracentesis. The doctor will run tests on the sample to determine the underlying cause of the fluid buildup.

      Occasionally, your doctor may request a biopsy of the pleura to better analyze the tissue and determine the cause of the pleurisy. A sample of pleural tissue can be obtained several ways: with a biopsy needle, by making a small incision in the chest wall, or by using a thoracoscope (a video-assisted instrument for viewing the chest cavity and collecting samples).

      Once the underlying cause of your pleurisy is identified, your doctor will take steps to treat it such as administering antibiotics for an infection. In addition to this, disease, your doctor will probably prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs or pain medicines, such as aspirin, to remedy the inflammation. Sometimes, a codeine-based cough syrup will be prescribed to control a painful cough.

      In the case of pleural effusion, your doctor will direct treatment towards the underlying cause of the fluid. If the amount of pleural fluid is excessive, the doctor may drain it through a tube inserted in your chest, a procedure that requires hospitalization.

      Pleurisy usually is caused by an infection or a disease like lupus. While the condition probably can’t be prevented, it could indicate a larger underlying problem that your doctor should know about right away.

      Good luck and get well soon!


    What is the difference between lichen planus (LPP)& lupus erythematosus (LE)?
    I would also like to know what is blaschkoid LE. are both LP & BLE autoimmune diseases ? What are the remedies ?

  4. stanley gunner

    How Can Cure Mouth ulcer quickly?
    my mum says its due to heatiness… i apply some ulcer creams b4 i go to sleep. wad else can i do? my previous ulcers are caused by biting onto the gums while eating…pls help me…coz i hate them…i cant eat ketchup..or it will hurt like hell….

    1. Saluda Rapids

      I lived more than 30 years before I found out there are real medicines that will help.

      What you have is called an aphthous ulcer. Do web searches.

      There are a variety of topical steroidal medications that will greatly reduce the healing time.

      Triamcinolone dental paste is a weak steroid that punches most aphthous ulcers right out within a day–in fact, when I’ve put it on at the very first sign of one, it’s cured in a day and never rears its ugly head!

      There’s also a mouthwash–I can’t remember the name, but the pharmacist has to mix it up, old school, like they did back for your great-grandparents. It’s orange colored. Ask your pharmacist what it’s called, then ask your doctor about the prescription.

      There are stronger steroidal treatments, but doctors use those as a last resort.

      Triamcinolone paste will treat you right. It’s like magic. Dentists know about it, most regular medical doctors do not, it seems.

      I’ve spelled it correctly–TRIAMCINOLONE–you need it as a DENTAL PASTE (it comes in other forms that you can not use because it’s used to treat other things–you must have prescription fr the dental paste).

      The way to use: get a clean tissue or piece of cotton, and dry the ulcer as well as you can. take a tiny amount of the paste, just enough to cover the ulcer, and press it on. Still holding your cheek, or keeping the area dry, get a little spit in your mouth and let it roll over the applied paste. It will make the paste smooth on the outside and help it stay on. Wearing it at night is best, because you’re not eating drinking and swallowing so much.

      Triamcinolone dental paste (comes in small small tubes– 5 grams, I think).
      Mouthwash that the pharmacist has to mix–get the name from the pharmacist.
      If your MD gets annoyed you seem to know more about this than s/he does and won’t write you a prescription, call your dentist. The dentist knows all about it.

      Until you can get a prescription, rinse with salt water. It does help. Not nearly as well as the triamcinolone, but it’s better than nothing. Make it very salty–at least as salty as seawater–I always went saltier. Don’t drink it, just rinse and hold it in your mouth where the ulcer is. You want to do that for like a minute or two like every 2 or 3 hours you’re awake, when you can.

      There have been times when I’ve had 4 at once–and you can also get aphthous ulcers on the roof of your mouth, on your gum, and even on your tongue. Especially for the tongue ones, the mouth wash is best–it’s almost impossible to keep the past on your tongue, we move our tongues around too much! They are caused predominantly by stress, and they are a sort of auto-immune reaction–similar in some ways to rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus. Unlike cold sores (herpes virus), aphthous ulcers are *not* contagious.
      There has been research which indicates SLS, a detergent common to most toothpaste, aggravates aphthous ulcers, due to the abrading action. There *are* toothpastes which do NOT have SLS. Do websearch, and that will help you find the answers.

  5. jasmguillory

    Is it common to have abnormal bleeding with Kariva Birth control?
    the first birth control i was on was ortho-tricyclen lo. when i was on it my menstral periods were normal but i had two extra days of spotting so my Obgyn switched me to kariva. i have been on kariva to regulate my periods. i have been on kariva for 2 months now. my first period was normal lasting 7 days. my most recent period has lasted 19 days and counting. i heard that it is common to have some abnormal bleeding when you first start kariva. but i don’t think 19 days is normal. do you think this could be a serious problem. and does the fact that i had a baby 7 months ago have anything to do with my irregular period.

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