1.Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the repeated collapse of the upper airway. Symptoms of OSA include snoring while sleeping, waking up at night, and tiredness in the morning. Sleep study may be necessary to diagnose the OSA. It is somewhat like spending a night in a hotel with the difference of having sensors attached to ones body and being watched in a sleep.

2. Sleep Problems (such as Insomnia or Narcolepsy)

Good night's sleep is critical for renewing mental and physical health of every person. Numerous sleep problems (disorders) are conducive to a lowered quality of life and may endanger personal and public safety. Some sleep disorders may be life-threatening. Sleep disorders are treatable.

Insomnia is trouble falling asleep or staying asleep during the night and may be a symptom of other health problems. Insomnia can be caused by a number of factors including psychological and/or environmental ones, lifestyle, or physical/psychiatric illness.

Narcolepsy is a tendency to sleep at inappropriate times and constant daytime sleepiness. Symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden loss of strength in muscles, sleep attacks (sleep paralysis), and continual sleepiness and tiredness that cannot be fully relieved by any amount of sleep.

Sleep study may be necessary to diagnose sleep problems or the obstructive sleep apnea. It is somewhat like spending a night in a hotel with the difference of having sensors attached to ones body and being watched in a sleep.

3. Stroke

Ischemic stroke is a blockage of brain blood vessels; hemorrhagic stroke is bleeding into or around the brain. Immediate medical care is critical for person who is having a stroke.. After stoke some disability is common. Rehabilitation helps restore functions lost from brain damage due to stroke.

4. Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition of having repeated seizures with no obvious cause. Seizure is a short period of uncontrolled body behavior that may last seconds to several minutes. For large percentage of people with epilepsy, no cause of seizures is ever found. The most common treatment to prevent seizures is the use of daily medications.

5. Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the brain and spinal cord. In MS the outside layer of nerves is damaged which interferes with nerve signals. Symptoms of MS include vision loss or double vision, numbness, weakness, fatigue, and unsteady walking. The cause of MS is unknown but it is thought to be autoimmune.

6. Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's disease attacks brain tissue and manifests itself with a steadily increasing memory loss that may be combined with vision, language, and emotional control problems. People with Alzheimer's disease will require constant care at some point. Symptoms include trouble learning new information, increasing confusion and disorientation, trouble with conversations, personality changes, misplacing objects, becoming lost in familiar settings, and judgment problems.

7. Headaches/Migraine headaches

Migraine is a recurring throbbing headache, usually occurring on one side of the head. The exact cause of migraine is unknown. It appears to be inherited biochemical disorder of the brain. Symptoms include severe prolonged headache, throbbing pain, increased pain after movement, sensitivity to bright light, sound or odors, nausea. Treatments include medications and lifestyle changes.

8. Restless Leg Syndrome

Restless Led Syndrome (RLS) is not related to emotional or psychological disorders. RLS is an uncomfortable feeling that occurs in legs when they are still, especially at bedtime. RLS can interfere with travel or the use of transportation. RLS may be diagnosed by a sleep study. It is important to determine whether there are any conditions (such as iron deficiency, diabetes, arthritis, etc.) which may be contributing to the RLS. Once these are treated or excluded, treatments of RLS may include numerous home remedies and/or medications.

9. Dystonia

Dystonia can be described as involuntary tremors of a part of the body, e.g., leg, neck and it can affect people who spent years in activities that involve repetitive movements. Treatments include medications, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections, and surgery.

10. Parkinsonism

Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive disease caused when a small group of brain cells die that control body movement. No one knows why these dopamine-producing cells die. Several theories are explored including exposure to toxic substances, chemical reactions within the body, and certain genetic factors. Symptoms include tremor in arms and legs, stiff and rigid muscles, slowness of walking with impaired balance. Many kinds of treatment help people maintain mobility and function.

11. Pain Syndromes/Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal aches, pain and stiffness, soft tissue tenderness, general fatigue, and sleep disturbances. The most common sites of pain include the neck, back, shoulders, pelvic girdle, and hands. Sometimes it is not easy to diagnose fibromyalgia. There is no one specific diagnostic test to make a diagnosis. However, there are a variety of procedures that can help physician to determine whether or not patient has fibromyalgia.

12. Numbness/Tingling

Numbness and tingling are abnormal sensations that can occur anywhere in the body, but are often felt in fingers, hands, feet, arms or legs. Common causes include injury to the nerve (most common carpal tunnel syndrome), pressure on the spinal nerves (such as from a herniated disk), multiple sclerosis, migraine, seizures, stroke, and a number of medical conditions such as underactive thyroid or vitamin B12 deficiency.
Peripheral numbness distally (hands or feet) may indicate diffuse nerve damage such as seen in peripheral neuropathy. The most common cause of peripheral neuropathy is diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 deficiency, underactive thyroid, and autoimmune disorders (lupus, Sjogren's syndrome).

About the author:

Source: http://www.sooperarticles.com/health-fitness-articles/sleep-articles/common-neurological-conditions-87663.html

diagnostic testing for lupus

21 thoughts on “Diagnostic Testing For Lupus

  1. momzpeachy

    need some help understanding MS? How often are the flare ups and how does it get diagnosed?
    I had an MRI done early February due to neck and arm pain. That was of the brain and showed no lesions. Since that MRI ..I had a major flare of pain all over and all kinds of symptoms that go along with MS. My vision got blurry and nlood pressure raised. I was a real mess. I was told by the neurologist that since that MRI was negative there is no chance I have MS. I had those symptoms for a few weeks and now I am better. It’s really weird how it all went away. Except for the vision part…I still have blurry and distorted vision. Flourescent light drives me nuts!

    I am quite concerned as to whether the neurologist could be wrong. I was also told it could possibly be lupus but all the blood work came back negative.

    I’m wondering if some of you might be able to help me and guide me in a direction. I am seeing a rheumatologist tomorrow but not sure that’s the right doctor to see. What other tests need to be done and who orders them?

  2. uptempo

    what are autoimmune test kits? where can i find more info on how they work?
    I am applying for a job who does autoimmune diagnostic kits, and I am trying to learn more in how they work in diagnosing autoimmune diseases..anyone know?

    1. Gabe

      My ex g/f was found to have Lupus, an auto-immune disease and they found it through a blood test. Not exactly sure what they look for, but i do know it requires blood testing.

  3. Katye

    What illnesses are impossible to have a confirmed diagnosis on?
    As I understand it, there are some illnesses out there that can only be diagnosed based on ruling out everything else. So my question is, what illnesses can someone have when all tests still show up normal?
    Currently I’m studying medicine and as far as I know this is the topic after dehydration which we are doing now. I was hoping to get a little knowledge before hand but I haven’t got the books yet and the internet seems to be failing me? Thanks!

  4. hellzbellz

    I have a question about blood work for lupus?
    I got blood work done for lupus today…an ana and an esr…not really sure what an esr is but the lab tech said it was something to do with internal inflimmation…I wanna know what the tests will confirm or rule out. I have the “mask” and a few other symptoms but as I understand it there is not a 100% test to determine if its lupus or not.

    1. Lioness_Rampant

      You’re right, there isn’t a diagnostic test. Drs usually use a host of screening tests to make an educated guess. CRP, ESR and ANA tests are common – but none are paricularly effective.

      ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate) measures how fast red blood cells sink to the bottom of test tube in a centrifuge. When inflammation is present, the proteins in blood stick together and get heavy, so sink faster, giving a high rate. Swelling and inflammation can be present for many reasons, so although it shows inflammation it can’t tell you why or where. Lupus patients sometimes have a high ESR.

      Drs sometimes use CRP (C-reactive protein) as another measure – it’s a byproduct of inflammation. Lupus, rhumatoid arthritis and vasculitits patients do not always have raised CRP.

      ANA – antinuclear antibodies – produced when the body attacks itself. A normal result is negative. Positive results can be down to SLE, thyroid disorder, myositis and chronic liver disease amoung other things. Some people have a postive ANA, with no signs or symptoms of disease. A weak positive or negative result doesn’t rule out Lupus either.

      My GP rarely does ANA tests, because you can’t draw a conclusion from the results.

      So no, the tests can’t confirm or rule it out entirely. You’re doctor might draw the conclusion you have Lupus if your ESR is high and ANA positive and it’s quite likely that he’d be right. (but like I said, it’s possible to have Lupus with negative ANA and not have lupus with positive ANA!)

      I’ve got Lupus. My ANA is weakly positive (which Drs read tend to read as negative) and ESR was raised at first but has since fallen into normal range.

  5. One step beyond

    How do doctors go about diagnosing arthritis?
    I am 22 and for some time now I get pain in my hips when walking and knees when kneeling and sitting down/standing up. I am seeing my doctor tomorrow but I could do with another opinion about it. I’m finding it very difficult to do things like gardening. I had an xray 2 weeks ago and the doctors have received the results.

    I had to wait one week for results but had to wait another week for appt to see the doctor again

    1. ★☆✿❀

      It’s extremely unlikely that your doctor is going to find any changes on your x-ray if you have arthritis.

      The type of arthritis that affects young people (those under 40) is typically caused by an autoimmune disease (Lupus, Sjogren’s, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis). Most of these conditions either do not cause damage that can be seen on x-rays or it takes years of uncontrolled disease.

      Has your doctor ordered blood tests? These are the best way to make a diagnosis of arthritis. Doctors typically order inflammatory markers (ESR and CRP) and antibodies (ANA, Rheumatoid Factor, ENA). If these are suggestive of an inflammatory form of arthritis then you should see a rheumatologist.

      Has your doctor examined your painful joints? Some people have consistently normal blood tests, but still have an obviously active disease. Doctors can examine your joints and feel for swelling.

      An MRI, diagnostic ultrasound or bone scan could also be used.

      However, if you do not have stiffness or swelling then you probably do not have arthritis. There are so many other conditions that cause joint pain, like bursitis, referred pain from an injury, Fibromyalgia, other autoimmune diseases. The joint pain in these conditions does not cause inflammation in the joint itself, thus not being arthritis.

      Good luck.


  6. gr8mtviews

    Homework help: Someone please explain ANCA test results?
    Ok today alone I have read thirteen explanations of reading the results of ANCA tests, however, I am still not understanding most of it. Where is Norton the Lab Man when you need him?
    Actually, he has Churg Strauss and this test little usefullness at this point. I am working on my master’s in nursing and have to find a way to explain in laymen terms to hypothetical patient, and this test is making me nuts. Thanks for your answer.

    1. norton g

      Dear Grandma – I’m here! If these tests are being done on your husband or you, you should be getting a clearer explanation of their meaning from the doctor who orders the test. The labs routinely have a written procedure for each test, including the significance of each.
      Nevertless let me try to share some opf this more complicated item.
      ANCA (Anti-Neutrophile Cytoplasmic Antibody, Serum)
      Significant percentages of patients with certain diseases develop auto-antibodies (auto-Ab) against cell components of the two types of peripheral blood white cells (WBCs) = neutrophiles and monocytes. When to use this test and the interpretation of what it means is totally dependant on the findings in a particular case AND how the particular diagnostic specialist values the test results among all other factors. Positivity tends to imply a disease with a blood vessel inflammatory (vasculitis) component.

      The IFA (indirect fluorescence Ab) ANCA test is a visual test using a fluorescent microscope. This is the most sensitive method for detecting ANCA; therefore, it picks up the most “false positives”. IgG antibody (Ab) class ANCA is seen in test patterns that are either cytoplasmic (C-ANCA), atypical (C-ANCA [atypical]), perinuclear (P-ANCA), and atypical ANCA (x-ANCA). The ANCA test is most useful in patients with blood in sputum (hemoptysis) and blood in urine (hematuria)…possible indications of systemic vasculitis (as are skin purpura, blood in stool [hematochezia], and retinal hemorrhages). It also has use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and auto-immune hepatitis (AIH) diagnosis. [warning]

      The test quickie capsule: (1) C-ANCA positivity is usually directed at PR3 and used to support the diagnosis of Wegener’s; (2) P-ANCA positivity is usually used to support Dx of immuno-vasculitis, glomerulonephritis, C-S syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Ulvcerative Colitis.

      James A. Goeken, MD, immunopathologist & director of immunopathology lab at the U. of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (Sept. 2000-present, personal communications).
      CAP TODAY, June 1998 issue
      “Vasculitis” Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Feb. 2001
      Clinical Diagnosis & Management by Lab. Methods [text], JB Henry, page 992-993, 2001 edition.

      Sorry it is so complex.

  7. The One

    Can you name all the tests for Lupus?
    I know there are no specific tests, but what are ALL the names of the antibody tests? What other tests are done?

    I have had a negative ANA, negative Anti DS DNA, negative anti SM/RNP, and negative anti DNA antibody.
    I think I have Lupus for several reasons, it would be too long to explain my entire medical history but I can tell you that I have the butterfly rash that flares up when i am in the sun, more in summer; fatigue, joint pain, neck/shoulder/rib/back of the head pain, always wake up tired, anxiety/depression, etc.

    1. Brett H

      You’re right, the diagnostic tests for Lupus leave a lot to be desired. Obviously you’ve had the most important tests, and has any of your doctors suggested that your symptoms could be caused by another condition? Have you been tested for Lyme Disease? Have you had a tender point exam for Fibromyalgia?

      I’m sure these aren’t ALL of the Lupus tests, but here are the main ones –

      * ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)
      The ANA is a simple and extremely sensitive test which is positive in over 95% of SLE patients. A negative ANA result makes SLE an unlikely diagnosis. However, the test is not specific to SLE, and gives positive results for other autoimmune diseases such as Polymyositis, Scleroderma, Sjögren’s syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis. If a patient has symptoms of SLE, such as arthritis, a rash, and autoimmune thrombocytopenia (a low number of blood platelets), then they probably has SLE. In these cases, a positive ANA result can be useful to support SLE diagnosis. If needed, two subset tests, anti-dsDNA and anti-SM, can help to show that the condition is SLE. If anti-dsDNA autoantibodies are found, this supports the diagnosis of SLE. Higher amounts of anti-Sm are more specific for SLE.

      * Anti-Double Strand DNA (dsDNA)
      The Anti-double strand DNA (dsDNA) test looks for antibodies to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). These antibodies are increased in Systemic lupus erythematosus and are highly specific to SLE. 60 – 80% of patients with active SLE have a positive anti-dsDNA test.

      * Anti-Smith Antibodies (Sm)
      The anti-smith antibodies (Sm) test is more specific and is used to confirm the diagnosis of lupus from an ANA. The anti-Smith (Sm) autoantibody response is highly specific for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

      * C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
      The C-reactive protein test (CRP) measures the concentration of a protein which is found in blood serum when there is acute inflammation in the body. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or a bacterial infection, such as rheumatic fever. The CRP test is sometimes used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and some forms of arthritis and autoimmune diseases to assess how active the inflammation is and to monitor the treatment.

      * Anti-SR protein antibody assay
      In the test, sera (the clear portion of blood) is added to tiny wells in a plastic plate which have been coated with human SR proteins. Antibodies in the sera which adhere to the SR proteins are detected by a colored molecular tag. Sera from lupus patients turns purple. Sera from non-lupus individuals remains clear. The test can identify 50 to 70 percent of lupus patients who react positively to SR proteins.

  8. Sweet Pea

    What does it mean to have a possible positive lupus test?
    I have been having serious joint pain for some time now. My doctor tested me for arthritis, RA, and lupus. He said the test came back as a possible positive for lupus and he is sending me to a Rheumatologist for further testing. Does this mean they just don’t know or does it mean they are sending me for a confirmation? Has anybody had this happen to them?

    1. gpk.gr

      Dear Sweat Pea,
      the diagnosis of rheumatic diseases and specially systemic lupus erythematosus is based on clinical findings and past medical history. Laboratory values are use mainly for confirmation and sometimes to estimate disease activity. Please be patient until you visit your rheumatologist. As a specialist he will guide you through the differential diagnostic of arthritis (over 200 types!). I’m pretty sure you will feel frustrated after the first visit but afterwards you will begin to built a relationship with your rheumatologist based on his ability to understand your complaints and relieve your pain. Feel free to contact me and ask again!

  9. Answer Guru

    What is the name of this condition & what does it mean?
    For years I’ve had constant urine & kidney infections. After under going many tests at the hospital, they believe (got 1 more test to confirm this next week) that I have a condition where the bladder lining doesn’t fight off infection. So I’d have to constantly be on antibiotics. What is this condition called? Why does it happen? What are my options?
    Sorry I don’t know how this ended up in wordplay.

    1. Goldenwing

      This condition is called Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an inflammation of the bladder which can occur by itself or in conjunction with other autoimmune diseases, such as fibromyalgia, scleroderma, lupus, or Sjögren’s Syndrome.

      Although interstitial cystitis can occur with scleroderma, it is not part of the diagnostic criteria for any form of scleroderma, and many IC patients never go on to develop scleroderma or other autoimmune diseases.

      Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) include bladder spasms (which can be very painful), bladder frequency, bladder pain, low bladder capacity, and incontinence. Very often, Interstitial Cystitis patients are wrongly treated for what their doctors assume must be bladder infections, urethritis, or “emotional” problems.

  10. MEEE

    How do I know if I have Lymphoma?
    I am only 14 and I had Mono about a month ago. They did blood work and said that my Mono was gone, but I still have the symptoms. I looked up what the symptoms could mean and Lymphoma came up. I am afraid to ask my doctor to run any tests because they have done everything from Mono to HIV. I’m scared that if I have cancer that I won’t make it through. Can someone help me?

  11. Anonymous

    What does it mean if your period lasts for 2 weeks?
    I’ve had this happen to me maybe a few times. I got my period around 3-4 years ago. I am 15 right now. A period to last 2 weeks sounds a bit excessive… and my flow can be pretty heavy sometimes also. Does anybody know any reasons to why this happens?

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